The distribution of A. europaea indicates the relict character of its localities related to the Pleistocene and the Holocene evolution of vegetation. In 2011, a large population of A. europaea was discovered in central Poland. The measured plants are taller than those previously recorded in Poland and Europe, and also were the tallest of all the Asiatic and North American species. The aim of our paper is to present the height structure in populations of Actaea europaea in central Poland that contain probably the tallest known individuals of the Actaea genus. The study also discusses the factors that can influence the height of plants.