Housing needs of the population of Poland at the background of regional housing markets
Subsequent national censuses indicated that the rate of increase in the number of households in the periods between the censuses conducted in 1978/1988 and 1988/2002 was similar and amounted to ca. 2%. The statistical housing deficit was estimated in 1988 at nearly 12% of the existing stock, with similar proportion in towns and villages. According to the Census 2002 results, the statistical housing deficit in 2002 was estimated at 1,704,000 flats nationwide, including 1,089,000 flats in towns and 615,000 in rural areas. Between the last two censuses, the deficit increased to nearly 15% of the existing stock, including less than 14% in tows and more than 15% in rural areas. In 2002, self-contained flats (occupied by single households) were estimated at 10.1 million among the total number of 13.3 million. That proportion was 76.1% of the total number of households, while the same proportion was 80.3% in 1988. Therefore, the number 137 of shared flats increased from 2.4 million in 1988 (19.6% of the total number of households) to 3.2 million in 2002, or 23.9% of the total number of households. What is characteristic is the increase of single-person households from 17.4% in 1978 to nearly 25% in 2002, and in the towns: from less than 21% in 1978 to nearly 28% in 2002. The description of Polish regional housing markets is shown on the basis of 2002 statistics supplemented by respective comparative references to 2001 and 2000. That indicated that, between 2000 and 2001, GNP increased in current prices by 5.2%, while considerable differences were observed in the increases in particular regions. In the Mazowieckie, the increase exceeded 10%, while in the Opolskie, it was less than 1%. Those figures are also reflected in the indexes of relations between secondary and primary housing market transactions in 2002: 1.6 and 6.7, respectively (with a six times lower number of transactions) at the national average of 2.5. Our analysis indicates that there are considerable differences in demographic or economic conditions of development between regions, and they are reflected in the local housing market trends. We can thus conclude that it is necessary to adjust local strategies for satisfying housing demand to specific requirements and generally adopted directions of social and economic development.