Bakhtiarian savory (Satureja bachtiarica Bunge) is an endemic herb growing wild in Iran with interesting pharmacological and biological properties. In this research, the variability of essential oil content and phytochemical compositions among seven populations of this species was studied in both natural and field conditions. There was a wide interpopulation variability in phytochemical variation of studied populations under both natural and field conditions, indicating the existence of different chemotypes. Six chemical compositions showed high value in studied plants so that carvacrol and thymol were known as major compounds and confirmed by principal component analysis. Ilam population had the highest thymol in both field (77.10 %) and natural (42.32 %) conditions and was known as a thymol chemotype. Beside, Yazd and Shahrekord populations, respectively, showed the highest carvacrol percentages in both field (84.83 and 63.81 %) and natural (72.50 and 58.05 %) conditions and were known as carvacrol chemotypes. In other populations, carvacrol and thymol were the main components and showed partly equal percentage and these populations were known as carvacrol/thymol chemotypes. According to Pearson correlation analysis, carvacrol was negatively correlated with p-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol (r = -0.61, -0.70 and -0.98, respectively), indicating very high reverse correlation between carvacrol and thymol. In conclusion, the high value of the essential oil compositions in studied S. bachtiarica populations could provide useful information for conservation and selection of cross parents in breeding programs to develop improved cultivars.