In the present investigation the seeds of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp) were treated with different doses of gamma radiation (05KR, 10KR, 15KR, 20KR, 25KR, 30KR, 35KR, 40KR, 45KR, and 50KR) and concentration of Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (05mM, 10mM, 15mM, 20mM, 25mM, 30mM, 35mM, 40mM, 45mM, and 50mM) for studying seed germination, seedling height, (shoot and root), seedling injury, seedling vigour index, and seedling survival of plants at 30th day. The seed germination percentage was decreased with increased in the concentration/doses when compared to control. The LD50 (Lethal dose) value was determined based upon the seed germination percentage. The 50 percentage of seed germination and reduction was observed in 20KR of gamma rays and 25mM of EMS and it is considered as LD50 value for both the treatments. The decrease in seed germination was more prominent with gamma rays than that of EMS treatments. The seedling parameters of gamma rays and EMS treated seedlings were progressively decreased with increase dose/concentration in all mutagenic treatments when compared to control. The maximum seedling parameters were observed in 05KR of gamma rays and 05mM of EMS. Minimum seedling parameters were observed in 50mM of EMS and 50KR of gamma rays respectively.