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Analiza stanu ochrony starorzecza na przykładzie kompleksu starorzeczy "Wiśliska" - obszar Natura 2000 PLH 120084

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
EN
Analysis of the conservation status of the "Wisliska" oxbow lakes - Natura 2000 site PLH 120084
Języki publikacji
PL
Abstrakty
PL
Siedlisko kodowane w Dyrektywie Siedliskowej jako 3150, obejmujące eutroficzne zbiorniki wodne, w tym starorzecza, jest definiowane na podstawie stopnia eutrofizacji wody i roślinności porastającej zbiornik. Cechy te są często analizowane w waloryzacjach, inwentaryzacjach i decyzjach środowiskowych jako jedyne, które charakteryzują to siedlisko. Na podstawie szeroko zakrojonych badań ekosystemowych kompleksu starorzeczy opisano typowe mechanizmy ekologiczne wpływające na stan ochrony starorzecza
EN
The habitat “3150 Natural eutrophic lakes with Magnopotamion or Hydrocharition vegetation” is defined on the basis of the water eutrophication level and the type of vegetation that covers the water table. These features are very frequently used as the only features determining the habitat integrity and the favorable conservation status. Based on the extensive studies of the “Wiśliska” complex of old river beds, we are presenting other features of old river beds, which should be analyzed in order to determine the habitat integrity. “Wiśliska” is an old river bed of the Vistula River, which was isolated during the river training works done ca. 100 years ago. Due to the straightened river channel and penetrable sediments in the valley, the Vistula bed was lowered and the old channel dried. The water level in “Wiśliska” was raised again, because of the dam construction in Łączany, which raised the water table over a large part of the valley. Meanwhile, the old river bed was divided into three parts, called Miejsce, Oko and Krajskie. Natural morphology was preserved only within Miejsce. It was separated from Oko by a large alluvial fan created at the mouth of the Łowiczanka stream. Krajskie was separated from Oko by channel levees constructed before WWII, although it still is connected with the main channel of Vistula. This has direct consequences for water quality – water in Miejsce and Oko is supplied by Łowiczanka, which has very good water quality, whereas Krajskie although is also supplied by clear waters of Łowiczanka, which come from Miejsce through Oko, also is supplied by rather polluted waters of the Bachówka stream and water coming directly from the polluted Vistula during high water levels. The biocenosis quality is related to hydrological regime. Although the water quality and related plankton communities are the best in Oko; Miejsce preserves not only the high quality of water and plankton, but also the largest population of protected unionid clams Anodonta cygnea and the related bitterling Rhodeus sericeus population. Also Oko and Miejsce are the place of occurrence of a large number of freshwater sponges Spongilla lacustris and related rare Trichoptera species of the genus Ceraclea. Also some rare species of dragonflies occur here: Sympecma paedisca, Aeshna viridis, Epitheca bimaculata, Leucorrhinia pectoralis. Miejsce is far more rich in vertebrate species than the other waterbodies. There are breeding places of Bombina bombina, Botaurus stellaris and Sterna hirundo. Near the mouth of Łowiczanka, there are two patches of threatened Nymphoides peltata. The only rare species found in Krajskie are Nymphoides peltata covering large areas, a single specimen of Trapa natans and the rare invertebrate Arcteonais lomondi (Naididae). There are also large populations of invasive mollusc species: Sinanodonta woodiana and Physella acuta. The main threats to habitat integrity of this site are: wrong alien fish stocking, introduction of too many predatory fish, influencing breeding of amphibians, sewage coming from the village of Miejsce and dangerous pesticides used in the intensively managed arable land surrounded by meanders. Morphology of the whole water body is rather artificial and habitat resilience is rather low. Since the water level depends on the level of water maintained on the dam “Łączany”, the existence of this water body depends on the maintenance of water transportation in the Vistula channel – if this would be ceased then the water level would be lowered and “Wiśliska” would be drained. The high quality of this site is maintained by Łowiczanka stream, which is mostly an artificial ditch, maintained in order to supply water to large areas of fishponds “Zator” and “Spytkowice”. The “natural” connection between Krajskie and the Vistula channel is rather deteriorating for the biocenosis, because of the inflow of polluted waters from Vistula. Which features should be analyzed in order to properly assess such a habitat quality? First, water quality should be measured: vertical distribution of oxygen, the content of nitrogen and phosphorus. It should be good to know potential sources of pollution located nearby. Second, morphological diversification should be assessed: shore line complexity and water depth variation. Third, habitat resilience should be assessed, especially its dependence on spontaneous processes and independence from anthropogenic maintenance. The fourth important feature is the presence of unique ecological relationships, which are usually associated with spontaneous, natural processes and rich species diversity. In conclusion, protection of old river beds cannot be based on literal reading of law definitions, but it should be based on understanding their functioning and integrity, interactions of abiotic and biotic factors. It is very important to publish as much of the reference data as possible, in order to enable proper understanding of the habitat functioning
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
69
Numer
2
Opis fizyczny
s.116-133,rys.,fot.,wykr.,bibliogr.
Twórcy
autor
  • Instytut Ochrony Przyrody, Polska Akademia Nauk, al.Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Kraków
autor
  • Instytut Ochrony Przyrody, Polska Akademia Nauk, al.Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Kraków
  • Instytut Ochrony Przyrody, Polska Akademia Nauk, al.Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Kraków
autor
  • Instytut Ochrony Przyrody, Polska Akademia Nauk, al.Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Kraków
autor
  • Instytut Ochrony Przyrody, Polska Akademia Nauk, al.Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Kraków
autor
  • Katedra Geologii Ogólnej, Ochrony Środowiska i Geoturystyki, Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza w Krakowie, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków
autor
  • Katedra Inżynierii Wodnej, Uniwersytet Rolniczy w Krakowie, al.Mickiewicza 4/28, 30-059 Kraków
autor
  • Instytut Ochrony Przyrody, Polska Akademia Nauk, al.Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Kraków
autor
  • Zakład Zoologii Kręgowców i Biologii Człowieka, Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie, ul.Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Kraków
autor
  • Instytut Ochrony Przyrody, Polska Akademia Nauk, al.Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Kraków
autor
  • GME Consulting Ryszard Myszka, ul.Lublańska 22, 31-410 Kraków
autor
  • Instytut Ochrony Przyrody, Polska Akademia Nauk, al.Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Kraków
autor
  • Instytut Ochrony Przyrody, Polska Akademia Nauk, al.Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Kraków
autor
  • Instytut Ochrony Przyrody, Polska Akademia Nauk, al.Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Kraków
autor
  • Instytut Ochrony Przyrody, Polska Akademia Nauk, al.Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Kraków
Bibliografia
  • Engel J. 2009. Natura 2000 w ocenach oddziaływania przedsięwzięć na środowisko. Ministerstwo Środowiska, Warszawa.
  • Klimaszyk P. 2004. Starorzecza i naturalne eutroficzne zbiorniki wodne ze zbiorowiskami z Nympheion, Potamion. W: Poradniki ochrony siedlisk i gatunków [on-line], MŚ, Warszawa.
  • Wilk-Woźniak E., Gąbka M., Pęczuła W., Burchardt L., Cerbin S., Glińska-Lewczuk K. i in. 2012. 3150 Starorzecza i naturalne eutroficzne zbiorniki wodne ze zbiorowiskami z Nymphaeion, Potamion. W: Mróz W. (red.). Monitoring siedlisk przyrodniczych. Przewodnik metodyczny, cz. 2. Biblioteka Monitoringu Środowiska, Inspekcja Ochrony Środowiska, Warszawa.
  • Zając K. 2002. Habitat preferences of Swan Mussel Anodonta cygnea (Linnaeus 1758) (Bivalvia, Unionidae) in relation to structure and successional stage of floodplain waterbodies, Ekologia (Bratislava) 21: 345-355.
  • EUR27 2007. The Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats, European Commission DG Environment.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
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