Soil metal contamination and fractionation of tea plantations: case studies in a normal tea garden and in a restored mineland tea stand
Extensive soil samples were collected from two tea gardens (a noted tea garden in Guilin and a mincland tea stand in Bayi Mn mine) in Guangxi to assess the heavy metal contamination level. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, and Al in garden soil were determined by ICP-AES. The results showed that the total concentrations of 6 metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Al) in mineland tea garden soils were all higher than their soil background concentrations in Guangxi. Except for Cu, the concentrations of 5 other heavy metals in mineland tea garden were all higher than those in Guilin tea garden. Although tea garden soils contained high concentrations of Cd, most of the Cd existed in the form of residual fractions that were unavailable to higher plants according to the results of the sequential extraction. Similarly, Mn was dominated by iron-manganese oxide and residual fractions in mineland tea garden soils, but dominated by residual fractions in Guilin tea garden soils. Pb was dominated by residual and iron-manganese oxide fractions in mineland tea garden soils but by residual, iron-manganese oxide and exchangeable fractions in Guilin tea garden soils. Cu, Zn, and Al were all dominated by residual fractions in soils. A simple pollution index and nemerow index assessment were used to assess heavy metal contamination in the two tea gardens. Results showed that Cd was the key pollutant in tea garden soils. According to simple pollution indexes, no Pb, Zn, or Cu pollution was found. However, because of the high contribution of Cd in composite pollution index, bulk soils (in-between and outside tea tree rows) in Guilin tea garden met the moderate pollution level with nemerow index assessment. All other tea garden soils reached the heavy pollution standard.
- 1. LEE S., KIM M., HEE Y. Effect of Korean green tea, oolong tea and black tea beverage on the removal of cadmium and antioxidative detoxification in cadmium administered rates. In The third international symposium on green tea, September 1, Seoul, Korea. 1995.
- 2. PESTELL K. Yet more roles for tea in disease prevention. Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 22, (10), 501, 2001.
- 3. HIRANO R., MOMIYAMA Y., TAKAHASHI R., TANIGUCHI H., KONDO K., NAKAMURA H., OHSUZU F. Comparison of green tea intake in Japanese patients with and without angiographic coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol., 90, (10), 1150, 2002.
- 4. MARK H. The beneficial effects of tea on immune function and inflammation: a review of evidence from in vitro, animal, and human research. Nutr. Res., 27, (7), 373, 2007.
- 5. DEKA A., VITA J.A. Tea and cardiovascular disease. Pharmacol. Res., 64, (2), 136, 2011.
- 6. HAN W.Y., SHI Y.Z., MA L.F. RUAN J.Y. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, and copper in different types of Chinese tea. B. Environ. Contam. Tox., 75, (2), 272, 2005.
- 7. HAN W. Y., ZHAO F. J., SHI Y. Z., MA L F., RUAN J. Y. Scale and causes of lead contamination in Chinese tea [J], Environ. Pollut., 139, 125, 2006.
- 8. JIN C.W., DU S.T., ZHANG K., LIN X.Y. Factors determining copper concertration in tea leaves produced at Yuyao County, China. Food Chem. Toxicol., 46, (6), 2054, 2008.
- 9. ZAZOULI M.A., BANDPEI A.M., SHORKZADEH M., SABERIAN M. Cadmium and Lead content in Iranian consumed tea (Camellia sinensis) and in differently prepared tea infusions. Toxicol. Lett., 180, (Suppl. 1), S208, 2008.
- 10. KORKMAZ G.F., KESER R., AKÇAY N., DIZMAN S., OKUMUŞOĞLU N.T. Radionuclides and heavy metals concentrations in Turkish market tea. Food Control, 22, (12), 2065, 2011.
- 11. MILLER J.E., HASSETT J.J., KOEPPE D.E. The effect of soil properties and extractable lead levels on lead uptake by soybeans. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. Plant Anal., 6, (4), 339, 1975.
- 12. SIMS J.T. Soil pH effects on the distribution and plant availability of manganese, copper and zinc. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50, 367,1986.
- 13. JIN C.W., ZHENG S.J., HE Y.F., ZHOU G.D., ZHOU Z.X. Lead contamination in tea garden soils and factors affecting its bioavailability. Chemosphere, 59, (8), 1151, 2005.
- 14. SONG M. and LIU Y. Effect of biogeochemical cycle in tea garden on the soil acidification [J]. Journal of Tea Science, 10, (2), 19,1990.
- 15. DING R.X., HUANG X. Biogeochemical cycle of aluminium and fluorine in tea garden soil system and its relationship to soil acidification. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 28, (3), 229,1991.
- 16. WANG H., XU R.K., WANG N., LI X.H. Soil acidfication of alfisols and influenced by tea cultivation in eastern China. Pedosphere, 20, (6), 799, 2010.
- 17. LI Y., ZHANG J.Z., TONG H.R. Monitoring and evaluation of heavy metals in soil of tea gardens and teas. Environ. Sci. Technol., 31, (5), 71,2008.
- 18. KARAK T, ABOLLINO O., BHATTACHARYYA P., DAS K.K., PAUL R.K. Fractionation and speciation of arsenic in three tea gardens soil profiles and distribution of As in different parts of tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.). Chemosphere, 2011 [on line].
- 19. MCGRATH S.P, SHEN Z.G., ZHAO F.J. Heavy metal uptake and chemical changes in the rhizosphere of Thlaspi caerulescens and Thlaspi ochroleucum grown in contaminated soils. Plant Soil, 188, (1), 153,1997.
- 20. IDRIS R., TRIFONOVA R., PUSCHENREITER M., PUSCHENREITER M., WENZEL W.W., SESSITSCH A. Bacterial Communities Associated with Flowering Plants of the Ni Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi goesingense. Applied an Environmental Microbilogy, 70, (5), 2667, 2004.
- 21. WANG J., ZHANG C.B., JIN Z.X. The distribution and phytoavailability of heavy metal fractions in rhizosphere soils of Paulowniu fortunei (seem) Hems near a Pb/Zn smelter in Guangdong, PR China. Geoderma, 148, (3-4), 299, 2009.
- 22. TESSIER A., CAMPBELL P. G. C., BISSON M. Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal. Chem. 51, 844, 1979.
- 23. ALLEN H.E. Standards for metals should not be based on total concentrations. SETAC Europe News. 8, 7,1997.
- 24. RUAN J.Y., WANG G.Q., SHI Y.Z., MA F. Aluminium in tea soils, rhizosphere soil and the characteristics of Al uptake by tea plant. Journal of Tea Science, 23, (supplement), 16, 2003.
- 25. DONG D.M., XIE Z.L., DU Y.G. The bioavailability of Al in soils to tea plants. Appl. Geochem., 16, (11-12), 1413, 2001.