Toltrazuril (Baycox vet.) in feed can reduce Ichthyophthirius multifiliis invasion of rainbow trout (Salmonidae)
Treść / Zawartość
Various compounds have been applied for control of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (commonly known as Ich) which is the parasitic pathogen, responsible for the white spot disease, in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. Available methods are based on disinfection of fish tank water, targeting infective free-swimming theronts and escaped tomonts. No legal drug is available and licensed for treatment or prevention of the disease. The presently reported study was performed to test the potential of toltrazuril (Baycox® vet.)—a drug licensed for treatment of coccidial infections in other animal species—to reduce Ich infections when administered orally. Commercial pelleted feed containing 5.0 or 2.5 mg toltrazuril per 1 g of feed was offered to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) (Actinopterygii: Salmoniformes: Salmonidae), during a three day feeding regime (1% of biomass offered per day). Two trials were performed: one with feeding before exposure to parasites and one where already infected fish were treated. Before the treatment it was tested if fish would eat feed containing different drug concentrations and it was found that feed with the high drug concentration was not eaten by the fish whereas all feed containing 2.5 mg per 1 g feed was eaten. Following the exposure to infective I. multifiliis theronts it was found that the fish treated with toltrazuril before challenge obtained a significantly lower parasite burden (number of trophonts in the skin) compared to untreated control. On the other hand, toltrazuril proved to be ineffective when administered to the fish which were already infected before the treatment.
- Alishahi M., Buchmann K. 2006. Temperature-dependent protection against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis following immunisation of rainbow trout using live theronts. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 72 (3): 269–273. DOI: 10.3354/dao072269.
- Bruzio M., Buchmann K. 2010. The effect of peracetic acid products on parasites causing white spot disease. Fish Farmer 6: 25–27. www.fishfarmer-magazine.com.
- Buchmann K., Bresciani J. 1997. Parasitic infections in pondreared rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Denmark. Diseases of Aquatic Animals 28 (2): 125–138.
- Buchmann K., Sigh J., Nielsen C.V., Dalgaard M. 2001. Host responses against the fish parasitizing ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Veterinary Parasitology 100 (1–2): 105–116. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(01)00487-3.
- Clark T.G., Lin T.-L., Dickerson H.W. 1996. Surface antigen cross-linking triggers forced exit of a protozoan parasite from its host. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93 (13): 6825–6829. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.93.13.6825.
- Daugschies A., Mundt H.-C., Letkova V. 2000. Toltrazuril treatment of cystoisosporosis in dogs under experimental and field conditions. Parasitology Research 86 (10): 797–799. DOI: 10.1007/s004360000217.
- Dickerson H.W. 2006. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Cryptocaryon irritans (Phylum Ciliophora). Pp. 116–153. In:Woo P.T.K. (ed.) Fish diseases and disorders. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. DOI: 10.1079/9780851990156.0116.
- Driesen S.J., Fahy V.A. Carland P.G. 2008. The use of toltrazuril for the prevention of coccidiosis in piglets before weaning. Australian Veterinary Journal 72 (4): 139–141. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.1995.tb15034.x.
- EC 2004. EC directive 2004/28/CE, Art. 11, b.ii. Official Journal L136, 30/04/2004 pp. 0058-0084.
- Ghanem M.M., Radwaan M.E., Moustafa A.M.M., Ebeid M.H. 2008. Comparative therapeutic effect of toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium on Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii given at different times following infection in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). Preventive Veterinary Medicine 84 (1–2): 161–170. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.12.013.
- Gjerde B., Helle O. 1991. Chemoprophylaxis of coccidiosis in lambs with a single oral dose of toltrazuril. Veterinary Parasitology 38 (2–3): 97–107. DOI: 10.1016/0304-4017(91)90120-K.
- Heinecke R.D., Buchmann K. 2009. Control of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis using a combination of water filtration and sodium percarbonate: Dose-response studies. Aquaculture 288 (1–2): 32–35. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.11.017.
- Hines R.S., Spira D.T. 1974. Ichthyophthiriasis in the mirror carp Cyprinus carpio (L.). V. Acquired immunity. Journal of Fish Biology 6 (4): 373–378. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1974.tb04554.x.
- Krautwald-Junghanns M.-E., Zebisch R., Schmidt V. 2009. Relevance and treatment of coccidiosis in domestic pigeons (Columba livia forma domestica) with particular emphasis on toltrazuril. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 23 (1): 1–5. DOI: 10.1647/2007-049R.1.
- Lahnsteiner F., Weismann T. 2007. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis in rainbow trout and common carp with common and alternative therapeutics. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 19 (3): 186–194. DOI: 10.1577/H07-002.1.
- Matthews R.A. 2005. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet and ichthyophthiriosis in freshwater teleosts. Advances in Parasitology 59: 159–241.DOI: 10.1016/S0065-308X(05)59003-1.
- Mehlhorn H., Schmahl G., Haberkorn, A. 1988. Toltrazuril effective against a broad spectrumof protozoan parasites. Parasitology Research 75 (1): 64–66. DOI: 10.1007/BF00931192.
- Mitchell S.M., Zajac A.M., Davis W.L., Kennedy T.J., Lindsay D. 2005. The effects of ponazuril on development of apicomplexans in vitro. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52 (3): 231–235. DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00029.x.
- Shinn A.P., Picon-Camacho S.M., Bawden R., Taylor N.G.H. 2009. Mechanical control of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Ciliophora) in a rainbow trout hatchery. Aquacultural Engineering 41 (3): 152–157. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2009.07.002.
- Straus D.L., Meinelt T. 2009. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) formulations to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis theronts. Parasitology Research 104 (5): 1237–1241. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-009-1361-9.
- Toksen E., Nemli E. 2010. Oral treatment trials on telescope fish (Carassius auratus) experimentally infected with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet, 1876). Bulletin of the European Association for Fish Pathologists 30 (2): 48–54.
- Xu D.-H., Klesius P.H., Panangala V.S. 2006. Induced crossprotection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafineque), against different immobilization serotypes of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Journal of Fish Diseases 29 (3): 131–138. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.2006.00700.x.