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Health risk of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA)

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EN
Abstrakty
EN
Bisphenol A (BPA) belongs to chemicals that are produced in large quantities worldwide. It is commonly used as monomer in polycarbonate synthesis, plasticizer in the production of epoxy resins, as well as an additive for the elimination of surfeit of hydrochloric acid during the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production. BPA is not only used in the production of plastics intended to a direct contact with food, including plastic packaging and kitchenware, but also in inner coatings of cans and jar caps. There are various routes of human exposure to this substance such as oral, by inhalation and transdermal. The main sources of exposure to BPA include food packaging and dust, dental materials, healthcare equipment, thermal paper, toys and articles for children and infants. BPA is metabolized in the liver to form bisphenol A glucuronide and mostly in this form is excreted with urine. Due to its phenolic structure BPA has been shown to interact with estrogen receptors and to act as agonist or antagonist via estrogen receptor (ER) dependent signalling pathways. Therefore, BPA has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine disorders including female and male infertility, precocious puberty, hormone dependent tumours such as breast and prostate cancer and several metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Because of the constant, daily exposure and its tendency to bio-accumulation, BPA seems to require special attention such as biomonitoring. This observation should include clinical tests of BPA concentration in the urine, which is not only one of the best methods of evaluation of the exposure to this compound, but also the dependence of the daily intake of BPA and the risk of some endocrine disorders.
PL
Bisfenol A (BPA) należy do substancji chemicznych produkowanych na świecie w znacznych ilościach. Używany jest jako plastyfikator i półprodukt w syntezie żywic epoksydowych, tworzyw sztucznych poliwęglanowych oraz jako dodatek do usuwania nadmiaru kwasu chlorowodorowego przy produkcji polichlorku winylu (PCW). BPA nie tylko jest używany do syntezy tworzyw sztucznych służących do produkcji materiałów mających bezpośredni kontakt z żywnością, włączając opakowania z tworzyw sztucznych oraz sprzęt kuchenny, ale także stanowi składnik lakierów do pokrywania wewnętrznych powierzchni puszek metalowych przeznaczonych do żywności i napojów. BPA stosowany jest w produkcji poliwęglanów (PC) i żywic epoksydowych, wykorzystywanych w produkcji wyrobów do kontaktu z żywnością. Może być także stosowany, jako przeciwutleniacz i inhibitor w procesie polimeryzacji tworzyw sztucznych, m.in. polichlorku winylu (PCW). Narażenie na BPA może zachodzić drogą pokarmową, wziewną oraz przez skórę, a głównymi źródłami ekspozycji są opakowania żywności, kurz, materiały stomatologiczne, sprzęt medyczny, papier termiczny, a także zabawki i artykuły przeznaczone dla niemowląt i dzieci. BPA jest metabolizowany w wątrobie do glukuronianu bisfenolu A i w tej postaci jest usuwany z moczem. Ze względu na swą fenolową strukturę BPA wykazuje zdolność jako agonista lub antagonista do interakcji z receptorami estrogenowymi poprzez estrogenowe szlaki sygnalizacyjne. W wyniku takiego działania BPA odgrywa rolę w patogenezie zaburzeń endokrynnych włączając zaburzenia płodności u kobiet i mężczyzn, przedwczesne dojrzewanie, nowotwory hormonozależne, jak rak piersi oraz rak prostaty oraz schorzeń metabolicznych włączając zespół wielotorbielowatych jajników (PCOS). Biorąc pod uwagę stałe, codzienne narażenie na BPA z wielu źródeł oraz tendencje do bioakumulacji uzasadniony jest monitoring biologiczny tego związku. Powinien on w szczególności uwzględniać monitoring BPA w moczu, jako skuteczną metodę szacowania narażenia na ten związek, umożliwiając jednocześnie badanie zależności pomiędzy narażeniem na BPA a ryzykiem występowania niektórych chorób wynikających z zaburzenia czynności układu endokrynologicznego.
Wydawca
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Rocznik
Tom
66
Numer
1
Opis fizyczny
p.5-11,fig.,ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Department of Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdynia, Poland
autor
  • Department of Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, Medical University of Gdansk, Powstania Styczniowego 9B street, 81-519 Gdynia, Poland
autor
  • Department of Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdynia, Poland
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