The effect of different forest monocultures on mine soil properties that determine the soil’s capacity to resist erosion agents was researched. The following properties were analyzed: content of total organic matter, water permeability, structure, and particle size distribution. The reclaimed lignite mine soils were researched in the Kolubarski Basin in central Serbia in four monocultures of each silver lime (Tilia tomentosa Moench), black alder (Alnus glutunosa L.), Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis (Siebold et Zucc.) Gord.), and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.). The sample plots differed in plantation age and also in the initial characteristics of recently deposited mine waste. The dead organic residues and the products of their decomposition in all forest plantations improved the mine soil properties indicative of soil erodibility. After the effect of forest plantations, mine soil erodibility was lower compared to the recently deposited mine waste. The higher capacity of mine soils to resist erosion agents in all forest plantations was mostly caused by an increase in the content of total organic matter in the top 10 cm of topsoil. The effect of plantations on mine soil properties indicative of soil erodibility depended on tree species and the characteristics of recently deposited mine waste, its textural and mineralogical composition. The effect on soil properties that decrease soil erodibility was the highest in silver lime plantations, and the lowest in black alder plantations.