Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is an arthropod-borne virus, an etiologic agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), an infection involving the central nervous system. The disease is endemic in a large region in Eurasia where it is transmitted mainly by Ixodes ricinus in Europe and I. persulcatus ticks in Asia. This is the most important tick-transmitted arbovirus of human pathogenicity in Europe. The Białowieża Primeval Forest is a well-known endemic focus of tick-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in European bison, the important hosts of ticks in the Białowieża Primeval Forest. In the years 2005–2009, 95 blood samples were collected from European bison and examined for the presence of TBEV using nRT-PCR method. No positive results were obtained. For better understanding of TBEV vertebrate reservoir hosts in Poland, further investigations are needed.