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2019 | 78 | 4 |

Tytuł artykułu

Innervation of the pineal gland in the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) by nerve fibres immunoreactive to substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide


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Języki publikacji



Background: The study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the nerve fibres supplying the pineal gland in the Arctic fox. Materials and methods: The expression and distribution pattern of the studied substances were examined by double-labelling immunofluorescence technique. Results: The SP-positive fibres enter into the pineal gland through the capsule as the nervi conarii. The fibres formed thick bundles in the capsule and connective tissue septa, from where they penetrated into the pineal parenchyma. Inside the parenchyma, the nerve fibres created basket-like structures surrounding clusters of pinealocytes. The density of intrapineal SP positive fibres was slightly higher in the distal and middle parts of the gland than in the proximal one. Double immunostaining with antibodies against SP and CGRP revealed that the vast majority of SP positive fibres were also CGRP positive. The fibres showing a positive reaction to SP and negative to CGRP were scattered within the whole gland. The fibres immunopositive to CGRP and immunonegative to SP were not observed. In the habenular and posterior commissural areas adjoining to the pineal gland the immunoreactive nerve fibres were not found. Moreover, no immunopositive cell bodies were observed in both the pineal gland and the commissural areas. Conclusions: These results reveal that SP and CGRP are involved in the innervation of pineal gland in carnivores. In turn we suggest that these peptides can regulate/ /modulate melatonin secretion. (Folia Morphol 2019; 78, 4: 695–702)

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Opis fizyczny



  • Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
  • Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland


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