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2013 | 35 | 10 |

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Effects of artificial warming on the structural, physiological, and biochemical changes of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves in northern China


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We examined the effects of artificial warming on physiological, biochemical, and structural changes in leaves of maize plants (Zea mays L.) with a field warming experiment in the North China Plain. Stomatal characters, leaf anatomy and ultrastructure, gas exchange, and carbohydrate and mineral nutrition concentrations were examined using light microscopy, electron microscopy, portable photosynthesis system (Licor-6400), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. We found that artificial warming (about 2 ºC) increased both the stomatal index and stomatal size, and thus increased net photosynthesis rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (E). Artificial warming also significantly increased the profile area of chloroplast and mitochondria, but decreased leaf width and thickness, mesophyll thickness, and mesophyll cell size (mainly palisade cell size). In addition, artificial warming also significantly increased the foliar C:N ratio and soluble sugar contents (glucose, fructose, and sucrose), but not the mineral nutrients and starch contents. Our findings suggest that future global warming may affect the maize growth and production in northern China due to the direct warming effects on the structures (anatomy and ultrastructure), biochemical properties and gas exchanges of the maize leaves.

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Opis fizyczny



  • Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101, China
  • Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Center for Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis, Rutgers University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
  • Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101, China
  • Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Center for Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis, Rutgers University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
  • Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101, China
  • Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101, China
  • Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China


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