Cockroaches, mainly Periplaneta americana, are known to be suitable models for both fundamental and applied neurobiological research. Different preparations, used in electrophysiological experiments, can be extracted from its relatively accesible nervous system. Studies performed on (1) DUM (dorsal unapired median) octopaminergic neurons from the central nervous system and (2) neuronal cholinergic transmission revealed several complex regulatory mechanisms, which are for some of them very similar to those found in vertebrate nervous system. Differential regulation of membrane receptors and ion channels involved in the modulation and generation of DUM neurons pacemaker activity by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation (e.g., PKA, PKC, DARPP-32, CaMKinase II, PP12A) process have been now well characterized. Furthermore, more unusually, these intracellular signalling pathways seem to play important roles in the increase of sensitivity to neurotoxicants. In the same way, at cholinergic synaptic transmission level, the functional property of a negative muscarinic feedback has also been identified to play crucial influence in the modulation of the release of acetylcholine, which thereby reinforces compound toxic activity. All these data reveal exciting research area that could lead to improvement in the efficiency of insect pest management.