Pedagogical and educational institutions play an important role in health education. The proposed systemic principles should account for biological, environmental and cultural factors that determine the health of children and adolescents. Young people’s individual needs should constitute the framework of educational policy in the prevention of obesity and overweight. An analysis of health education practice in the Polish educational system indicates that the adopted measures, their practical applications and educational goals are adequate. Despite the above, the proposed systemic solutions are not always deployed or correctly implemented by the responsible institutions at various levels of local or social governance. The operations of pedagogical and educational institutions should place greater emphasis on supporting individuals in their quest for self-determination in the health context. The aim of health education is not only to convey knowledge, but, above all, to promote attitudes and behaviors that contribute to health, and the family plays a very important role in this process. Health education in the family should instill health-promoting behaviors which are influenced not only by lifestyle, but also by customs, traditions and the peer community. Health education for the prevention of obesity and overweight should also account for the parents’ educational needs in this area.