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1990 | 385 |
Tytuł artykułu

Influence of soil oxygen supply on root growth and functioning (revew of the literature)

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
FR
Influence des conditions d'oxygene dans le sol sur la croissance et le fonctionnement des racines (la revue des publications)
PL
Wpływ warunków tlenowych gleby na wzrost i funkcje korzeni (przegląd literatury)
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
All problems connected with the role of soil oxygen in root growth and functioning are discussed in this review. There are: diffusion of oxygen to and within plant roots, root respiration and factors affecting it, metabolic activity of roots under anoxia, oxygen deficit and root growth and water and nutrient uptake by roots and adaptation of roots to oxygen stress.
FR
L'état d'aération du sol est un des plus importants facteurs qui influencent les racines des plants. L'oxygène du sol exerce sur les racines 1'influence directe et indirecte. Les racines des plusieurs plantes ne sont approvisionnées en oxygène que par la diffusion radiale d'oxygène de la surface de la racine vers son intérieur. Avec la présence de l'oxygène est étroitement liée la respiration des racines (respiration de croissance, de maintien et ďadsorption). La respiration des racines, outre l'oxygène, est influencée par d'autres facteurs extérieurs (bioxyde de carbone, éthylène, température, résistance mécanique du sol, potential rédox et acidité du sol, fumure minérale et salinité du sol) et par des facteurs intérieurs liés avec la respiration des tissus et 1'action des parties aériennes des racines. La respiration des nodosités a éte peu étudiée. Sous l'effet du manque d'oxygène dans les racines apparaissent le bioxyde de carbone et les métabolites fermentatifs (éthanol, éthylène et son precurseur ACC et aussi certains acides organiques). De même, la réserve d'énergie est limitée, ce qui entraîne le freinage du processus d'adsorption et du transfert de 1'eau et des elements nutritifs dans les racines. Le déficit d'oxygène dans le sol influence la croissance des racines, le prélèvement des élèments nutritifs leur teneur dans les racines. Les racines des certaines plantes ont la faculté d'adaptation au stress d'oxygène dans le sol par le changement de leur structure anatomique et morphologique, l'enracinement peu profond et les changements métaboliques et physiologiques. Dans ce travail sont presentées les questions énumérées ci-dessus, fondées sur la littérature et les résultats des recherches effectuées par les auteurs.
PL
Stan natlenienia gleby jest jednym z najważniejszych czynników wpływających na korzenie roślin. Tlen glebowy wywiera na korzenie wpływ zarówno bezpośredni, jak i pośredni. Korzenie wielu roślin zaopatrywane są w tlen jedynie na drodze radialnej dyfuzji tlenu od powierzchni korzenia do jego środka. Z obecnością tlenu ściśle jest związana respiracja korzeni (wzrostowa, zachowawcza i adsorpcyjna). Oprócz tlenu na respirację korzeni wpływają inne czynniki zewnętrzne (dwutlenek węgla, etylen, temperatura, opór mechaniczny gleby, potencjał redoks i kwasowość gleby), jak i wewnętrzne związane z oddychaniem tkanek i wpływem części nadziemnych korzeni. Charakterystyczna jest respiracja brodawek korzeniowych. Pod wpływem niedotlenienia pojawia się w korzeniach dwutlenek węgla i fermentacyjne metabolity (etanol, etylen i jego prekursor ACC oraz niektóre kwasy organiczne). Również ograniczany jest zasób energii powodujący spowolnienie procesu adsorpcji i przemieszczania wody i składników pokarmowych w korzeniach. Niedobór tlenu w glebie wpływa na wzrost korzeni oraz pobieranie składników pokarmowych i ich zawartość w korzeniach. Korzenie niektórych roślin mają zdolność adaptacji do stresów tlenowych w glebie poprzez zmianę ich budowy anatomicznej i morfologicznej, płytkie korzenienie oraz zmiany metaboliczne i fizjologiczne. W opracowaniu omówiono szczegółowo wymienione wyżej zagadnienia na podstawie obszernej literatury oraz wyników badań własnych.
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
385
Opis fizyczny
p.7-73,fig.,ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Institute of Agrophysics, PAN, Doswiadczalna 4, 20-236 Lublin, Poland
  • Institute of Agrophysics, PAN, Doswiadczalna 4, 20-236 Lublin, Poland
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