The heavy metals extent and anthropogenic pollution sources in the Anzali Wetland in the southern coast of the Caspian Sea were the main focus of this research. The area of this study is 193 km². This wetland has ecological importance as it hosts migratory birds in the southwest Caspian Sea. The heavy metal pollution study as well as some major element determination studies were carried out on the collected core sediment samples from the wetland and the its related major river sediments. Concentrations of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Mn, P, and Ti, and trace elements such as Li, Ba, Sr, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Bi, and S were measured and analyzed using ICP-MS. Statistical analyses of cluster and principal component were carried out on these geochemical data. The results showed that the Hendekhale and Shijan sections of the Wetland were the most polluted, whereas the Siakishom section was the least polluted. The results also revealed As, Cd, Cu, Co, Ni, and Mo elements in the Siakishom section and As, V, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, Mo, Bi, Cr, and Zn in the HendeKhaleh section and As, Cd, Bi, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the Shijan section have anthropogenic pollution sources. However, V, Cr, and other selected elements had natural sources. Agricultural activities in the related watersheds were hypothesized as significant contributors of the pollution in the sediments of main parts of the wetland. For future studies, it is recommended to partition the collected sediment samples into coarse, medium and fine particle sizes so that the sources of pollution would be more precisely determined.