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2012 | 21 | 6 |
Tytuł artykułu

Coliform-specific solar disinfection of treated wastewater

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Our research investigated the potential use of solar radiation in water disinfection. Contaminated water was exposed to solar radiation under controlled conditions to deactivate and destroy pathogenic microorganisms. The experiment was directed toward examining the effective radiation time required for total coliform inactivation in the wastewater. The experiments were carried out between March and July 2009 with temperature ranges between 30-25ºC and solar radiation intensity of 2073.9-2775.2 Jul/cm2. The impact of three parameters under direct exposure to the sun was studied: depth (10, 20, 30 cm), turbidity (135, 160, 200 NTU), and container color (white and black). Comparison between solar disinfection and chlorination also was conducted. The maximum removal of total coliform was found to be 92.95% at 10 cm depth for sunny conditions, at 110 NTU, and white container. It was found that the optimum contact time in the chlorination experiment was 240 min, which gives a disinfection efficiency of 99.6%. No significant difference in the disinfection efficiency is shown with extra exposure time. These findings of photo-biological inactivation of coliform could be applied in reducing the hazards of water-borne pathogens in an environmentally sound and low-cost system.
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
21
Numer
6
Opis fizyczny
p.1577-1581,fig.,ref.
Twórcy
  • Department of Wastewater Resources and Environmental Management Al-Balqa Applied University, 19117 Al-Salt, Jordan
  • Department of Wastewater Resources and Environmental Management Al-Balqa Applied University, 19117 Al-Salt, Jordan
autor
  • Department of Wastewater Resources and Environmental Management Al-Balqa Applied University, 19117 Al-Salt, Jordan
Bibliografia
  • 1. MAIGA Y., DENYIGBA K., WETHE J., QUATTARA A. Sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli in waste stabilization microcosms in a sahelian region (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso). J. Photoch. Photobio. B-Biol. 94, 113, 2009.
  • 2. DEJUNG S., WEGELIN M., FENTES I., ALMANZA G., JARRO R., NAVARRO L., ARIAS G., URQUIETA E., TORRICO A., FENANDEZ W., IRIARTE M., BIRRER C., STAHEL W.A. Effect of solar water disinfection (SODIS) on model microorganisms under improved and field SODIS conditions. J. Water Supply Res. T. 56, (4), 245, 2007.
  • 3. MINTZ E., BARTRAM J., LOCHERY P., WEGELIN M. Not just a drop in the bucket: expanding access to point-ofuse water treatment systems. Am. J. Public Health. 91, (10), 1565, 2001.
  • 4. STOCKMAN L.J., FISCHER T.K., DEMING M., NGWIRA B., BOWIE C., CUNLIFFE N., BRESEE J., QUICK R.E. Point-of-use water treatment and use among mothers in Malawi. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13, (7), 1077, 2007.
  • 5. ACHER A., FISCHER E., TURNHEIM R., MANOR Y. Ecologically friendly wastewater disinfection techniques. Water Res. 31, 1398, 1997.
  • 6. PELIZZETTI E. Solar water detoxification. Current status and perspectives. Z. Phys. Chem. 212, 207, 1999.
  • 7. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA. Ultraviolet light disinfection technology in drinking water application: an overview. EPA 811-R-96-002: Washington, D.C. 1996.
  • 8. CALKINS J., BUCKLES J.D., MOELLER J.R. The role of solar ultraviolet radiation in “natural” water purification. J. Photochem. Photobiol. 24, 49, 1976.
  • 9. CONROY R. M., ELMORE-MEEGAN M., JOYCE T., MC GUIGAN K. G., BARNES J. Solar disinfection of drinking water and diarrhoea in Maasai children: a controlled field trial. Lancet. 348, 1695, 1996.
  • 10. DAVIES-COLLEY R.J., BELL R.G., DONNISON A.M. Sunlight inactivation of enterococci and fecal coliforms in sewage effluent diluted in seawater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 2049, 1994.
  • 11. RAVVA S.V., SARREAL C.Z., DUFFY B., STANKER L.H. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in wastewater from dairy lagoons. J. Appl. Microbiol. 101, 891, 2006.
  • 12. BOYLE M., SICHEL C., FERNANDEZ-IBANEZE P., ARIAS-QUIROZ G.B., IRIARTE-PUNA M., MERCADO A., UBOMBA-JASWA E., MC GUIGAN K.G. Bactericidal effect of solar water disinfection under real sunlight conditions, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2997, 2008.
  • 13. MC CAMBRIDGE J., MC MEEKIN T.A. Effect of solar radiation and predacious microorganisms on survival of fecal and other bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41, (5), 1083, 1980.
  • 14. CRAGGS R.J., ZWART A., NAGELS J.W., DAVIES-COLLEY R.J. Modelling sunlight disinfection in a high rate pond. Ecol. Eng. 22, 113, 2004.
  • 15. APHA, AWWA, and WEF. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. New York: 21st ed.; American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, 2005.
  • 16. CASLAKE L., CONNOLLY D., MENON V., DUNCANSON C., ROJAS R., TAVAKOLI J. Disinfection of contaminated water by using solar irradiation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, (2), 1145, 2004.
  • 17. ACRA A., JURDI M., MU’ALLEM H., KARAHAGOPIAN Y., RAFFOUL Z. Water disinfection by solar radiation. Assessment and application. IDRCTS66e. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, 1990.
  • 18. CONNOLY D., DUNCANSON C.M., VENON V., TAVAKOLI J., CASLAKE L.F., CAPORALI S., ROJAS R. Proceedings of the 3rd NSF International Symposium on Small Drinking Water and Wastewater Systems: Michigan, pp 655-661, 2001.
  • 19. WEGELIN M., CANONICA S., MECHSNER K., FlEISCHMANN T., PESARO F., METZLER A. Solar water disinfection: scope of the process and analysis of radiation experiments. J. Water Supply Res. Technol. AQUA. 43, 154, 1994.
  • 20. JOYCE T. M., MC GUIGA K.G., ELMORE-MEEGAN M., CONROY R.M. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 399, 1996.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
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