Application of an autonomous/unmanned survey vessel (ASV/USV) in bathymetric measurements
Treść / Zawartość
The accuracy of bathymetric maps, especially in the coastal zone, is very important from the point of view of safety of navigation and transport. Due to the continuous change in shape of the seabed, these maps are fast becoming outdated for precise navigation. Therefore, it is necessary to perform periodical bathymetric measurements to keep them updated on a current basis. At present, none of the institutions in Poland (maritime offices, Hydrographic Office of the Polish Navy) which are responsible for implementation of this type of measurements has at their disposal a hydrographic vessel capable of carrying out measurements for shallow waters (at depths below 1 m). This results in emergence of large areas for which no measurement data have been obtained and, consequently, the maps in the coastal zones are rather unreliable.The article presents the concept of bathymetric measurements for shallow waters with the use of an autonomous, unmanned sur vey vessel (ASV/USV). For this pur pose, the authors modernized a typical ASV/USV unit with standard radio remote control system to the fully autonomous mode. As part of the modernization, the route planning software was created. The developed software works based on, alternatively, GNSS measurements of the coastline, or satellite images. The system was supplemented by an own autopilot (adapted for flying drones). Moreover, the method of controlling electric motors was changed thanks to the use of own electronic circuit.The modernized ASV/USV measuring system was verified by performing bathymetric measurements of the retention reservoir in Gdansk, Poland. Then, the obtained measurement data were used to create a digital bottom model and a bathymetric map of the reservoir
- 1. Bakuła M., Przestrzelski P. (2013), Technology of Reliable RTK GPS/GLONASS Positioning, Geodesic Review, No. 7, pp. 3-9 (in Polish).
- 2. Bakuła M., Przestrzelski P., Kaźmierczak R. (2015), Reliable Technology of Centimeter GPS/GLONASS Surveying in Forest Environments, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 53(2), pp. 1029-1038.
- 3. Ćwiąkała P., Gabryszuk J., Krawczyk K., Krzyżek R., Leń P., Oleniacz G., Puniach E., Siejka Z., Wójcik-Leń J. (2015), GNSS Technology and Its Application in Setting Out Surveys and Monitoring, Rzeszów School of Engineering and Economics Publishing House, Rzeszów (in Polish).
- 4. Deakin R. E., Hunter M. N., Karney C. F. F. (2010), The Gauss-Krüger Projection, Proceedings of the 23rd Victorian Regional Survey Conference, Warrnambool.
- 5. Elliot W. (2014), Programming AVR Microcontrollers for Practitioners, Helion Publishing House, Gliwice (in Polish).
- 6. Guze S., Neumann T., Wilczyński P. (2017), Multi-Criteria Optimization of Liquid Cargo Transport According to Linguistic Approach to the Route Selection Task, Polish Maritime Research, Vol. 24(s1), pp. 89-96.
- 7. IHO (2008), IHO Standards for Hydrographic Surveys, Special Publication No. 44, 5th Edition.
- 8. Kadaj R. (2014), Design of the Quasigeoid Model PL-geoid-2011, Seminar of the Committee on Geodesy of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography at Warsaw University of Technology: „Realization of Geodetic Control Networks and Geodynamic Problems”, Grybów (in Polish).
- 9. Kazimierski W., Włodarczyk-Sielicka M. (2016), Technology of Spatial Data Geometrical Simplification in Maritime Mobile Information System for Coastal Waters, Polish Maritime Research, Vol. 23(3), pp. 3-12.
- 10. Makar A. (2002), Shallow Water Geodesy: Survey Errors During Seabed Determination, Reports on Geodesy, No. 2(62), pp. 71-78.
- 11. Makar A. (2008), Method of Determination of Acoustic Wave Reflection Points in Geodesic Bathymetric Surveys, Annual of Navigation, No. 14, pp.1-89.
- 12. Makar A., Naus K. (2003), Obtaining of Data for Digital Sea Bottom Model, Archives of Photogrammetry, Cartography and Remote Sensing, Vol. 13A, pp. 163-170 (in Polish).
- 13. Mohammed N. Z., Ghazi A., Mustafa H. E. (2013), Positional Accuracy Testing of Google Earth, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp.6-9.
- 14. Moszyński M., Chybicki A., Kulawiak M., Łubniewski Z. (2013), A Novel Method for Archiving Multibeam Sonar Data w it h Emphasis on Efficient Record Size Reduct ion a nd Storage, Polish Maritime Research, Vol. 20(1), pp. 77-86.
- 15. Osada E. (2016), Geodetic Datums, UxLAN Publishing House, No. 3, Wroclaw (in Polish).
- 16. PN-EN ISO 9875:2005, Vessels and Maritime Technology – Echo Sounders (in Polish).
- 17. Popielarczyk D. (2012), RTK Water Level Determination in Precise Inland Bathymetric Measurements, Proceedings of the 25th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2012), Nashville, pp. 1158-1163.
- 18. Popielarczyk D. (2016), Accuracy of Vertical Trajectory Determination of Hydrographic Survey Unit Using Robotized Total Station, Proceedings of the 16thInternational Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference & EXPO SGEM2016, Albena, pp. 39-46.
- 19. Popielarczyk D., Templin T. (2014), Application of Integrated GNSS/Hydroacoustic Measurements and GIS Geodatabase Models for Bottom Analysis of Lake Hancza: the Deepest Inland Reservoir in Poland, Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 171(6), pp. 997-1011
- 20. Popielarczyk D., Templin T., Łopata M. (2015), Using the Geodetic and Hydroacoustic Measurements to Investigate the Bathymetric and Morphometric Parameters of Lake Hancza (Poland), Open Geosciences, Vol. 7(1), pp. 854-869.
- 21. PRS (2015), Rules for Statutory Survey of Sea-going Ships. Part V – Navigation Devices, Gdansk (in Polish).
- 22. Romano A., Duranti P. (2012), Autonomous Unmanned Surface Vessels for Hydrographic Measurement and Environmental Monitoring, Proceedings of the FIG Working Week, Rome.
- 23. Specht C., Koc W., Smolarek L., Grządziela A., Szmagliński J., Specht M. (2014), Diagnostics of the Tram Track Shape with the Use of the Global Positioning Satellite Systems (GPS/GLONASS) Measurements with a 20 Hz Frequency Rate, Journal of Vibroengineering, Vol. 16(6), pp. 3076-3085.
- 24. Specht C., Specht M., Dąbrowski P. (2017), Comparative Analysis of Active Geodetic Networks in Poland, Proceedings of the 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference & EXPO SGEM2017, Albena, pp. 163-176.
- 25. Specht C., Weintrit A., Specht M. (2016), Determination of the Territorial Sea Baseline – Aspect of Using Unmanned Hydrographic Vessels, TransNav – The International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 649-654.
- 26. Specht M. (2016), Determination of the Polish Territorial Sea Baseline, Master’s Thesis, Gdynia Maritime University (in Polish).
- 27. Tuna G., Arkoc O., Koulouras G., Potirakis S. M. (2013), Nav igat ion System of a n Unma nned Boat for Autonomous Analyses of Water Quality, Elektronika i Elektrotechnika, Vol. 19, No. 8, pp. 3-7.
- 28. Wyrzykowski T. (1988), Monograph on Domestic 1st Class Precise Levelling Networks, Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw (in Polish).
- 29. Yan-na Z., Ti-kun S., Fei D., Wei-min Y. (2015), The Design of ARM-Based Control System of Unmanned Research Catamaran, In: Kim J.-H. et al. (eds.), Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications 3, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 345, Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 617-623
- 30. Zienkiewicz M. H., Czaplewski K. (2017), Application of Square Msplit Estimation in Determination of Vessel Position in Coastal Shipping, Polish Maritime Research, Vol. 24(2), pp. 3-12.