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1988 | 34 | 1 |

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Diagnostyka anisakidozy


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Diagnosis of anisakiasis

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As the anisakiasis is considered a food-borne disease, the necessity of a proper diagnosis of human anisakiasis is accompanied by the proper diagnosis of fish anisakiasis, because the invaded fish meat may represent a potential source of Anisakis invasion for human. The authoress presents some problems of the diagnosis of human anisakiasis and the attempts of the development of efficient diagnostic methods for detecting fish anisakiasis. In view of the difficulties in parasitological diagnosis of human anisakiasis and the diagnosis based on the clinical findings, serodiagnosis would be potentially of a great value. From the available literature it appears, however that serological tests have not yielded a practical and totally reliable method for routine application. Just recently Desowitz et al., 1985 reported that radioallergosorbent test could serve as a useful techuiqne for the serodiagnosis of human anisakiasis. Their investigations needed however further confirmation on a greater group of the individuals with chronic anisakiasis. Current methods of identification of the Anisakis larvae based on the morphological features are difficult and time consuming. Biochemical analysis to identify unique parasite constituents (like ascaroides in Ascaris) are not successful. Enzyme linked immuno assay procedure have been developed, but the interference by the other substances in fish flesh could not be eliminated. Therefore the goal of the investigations presented recently (Boczoń and Bier, 1986) was to develop biochemical techniques for detecing Anisakis in seafood looking for a metabolic changes that occur in invaded fish host. Like in trichinellosis or fasciolosis the uncoupling of the invaded by Anisakis fish muscle mitochondria was observed. Dependent on the intensity of invasion there is a significant increase of mitochondrial Mg++ - stimulated ATP-ase activity in fish muscle mitochondria isolated from different species invaded by Anisakinae nematodes. This activity can be used to estimate the number of nematodes per market fish. Anisakis simplex excretory-secretory products, which in Boczoń and Bier in vitro experiments also caused the mitochondrial ATP-ase activity in coupled rat mitochondria to increase, were found to be a potent inhibitors of rodent lymphocyte blast transformation (Raybourne et al., 1983) and may contain components which are active in in vitro tests for potential tumor promoters (Raybourne, personal communication).








Opis fizyczny



  • Katedra i Zakład Biologii i Parazytologii Lekarskiej, Akademia Medyczna w Poznaniu, Poznań


  • 1. Boczoń, K., Bier, J. W.: Anisakis simplex: Uncoupling of Oxidative Phosphorylation in the Muscle Mitochondria of Infected Fish. - Exp. Parasitol., 61, 270-279, 1986.
  • 2. Cain, G. D., Raj, K. R.: Anisakis, Phaconema, Contracoecum and Sulascaris spp. Electroforesis and Termostability of Alcohol and Malate Dehydrogenase from Larvae. - Exp. Parasitol., 49, 56-67, 1980.
  • 3. Desovitz, R. S., Raybourne, R. B., Ishikura, H., Kliks, M. M.: The radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for the serological diagnosis of human anisakiasis. - Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 79, 256-259, 1985.
  • 4. Grabda, J.: Studies on survival and development in vitro of Anisakis simplex stage 3 larvae in time. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, vol. XII Fasc. 1, Szczecin 1982.
  • 5. Margolis, L.: Public health aspects of „codworm" infection. A review. - J. Fish. Board of Canada, 34, 887-889, 1977.
  • 6. Michejda, J. W., Boczoń, K.: Changes in bioenergetics of skeletal muscle mitochondria during experimental trichinellosis in rats. - Exp. Parasitol, 31, 161-171, 1972.
  • 7. Myers, B. J ., The nematodes that cause anisakiasis. - J. Milk and Food Technol, 38: 12, 774-782, 1975.
  • 8. Muszbek, L., Szabo, T., Fesus, L.: A highly sensitive method for the measurements of the ATP-ase activity. - Ann. Biochem., 77, 286-288, 1977.
  • 9. Oshima, T.: Anisakis and anisakiasis in Japan and adjacent areas. In: Progress of Medical Parasitology in Japan, vol. 4, Tokyo, Meguro Parasitological Museum, 301-393, 1972.
  • 10. Raybourne, R., Desowitz, R. S., Kliks, M. M., Deourdorff, T. L.: Anisakis simplex and Terranova sp.: Inhibition by Larval Excretiory – Secretory Products of Mitogen Induced Rodent Lymphoblast Proliferation. - Exp. Parasitol., 55, 289-298, 1983.
  • 11. Ruitenberg, E. J.: Anisakiasis. Pathogenesis, serodiagnosis and prevention. Thesis, Rikjuniversiteit, Utrecht, 138, 1970.
  • 12. Suzuki, T., Akao, N., Yamashita, T.: A trial of identification of tissue parasites by using unlabeled antibody enzyme method. 2. Helminthes. - J. J. Parasitol., 30, 517-526, 1981.
  • 13. Suzuki, T., Sato, Y., Ymashita, T., Sekikawa, H., Otsuru, A.: Anisakiasis: preparation of a stable antigen for indirect fluorescent antibody test. - Exp. Parasitol., 35, 418-424, 1974.
  • 14. Van den Bosche, H., Verheyen, A., Verhoeven, H., Arnouts, D.: Alterations in rat liver mitochondria caused by Fasciola hepatica. - Contr. Microbiol. Immunol., 7, 30-38, 1982.
  • 15. Wiliams, H. H., Jones, A.: Marine helminths and human health. - Commonwealth Institute of Helmintology Miscellaneous publication No. 3. Farnham Royal UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, 1976.

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