Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2014 | 06 | 1 |

Tytuł artykułu

Changes in maximal aerobic fitness and students’ attitude towards physical effort during outdoor and indoor school lessons of physical education

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



Background: The aim of the research was to determine an influence of an increased number of outdoor lessons of Physical Education on aerobic fitness and to evaluate students’ attitude towards endurance efforts. Material/Methods: In the presented research project a group of students participated in a school program of Physical Education on the basis of a higher number of lessons realized in the natural environment in the vicinity of school. The subjects were a group of 220 students from 4 schools of the Pomeranian Voivodeship, who were subjected to initial and final measurements during two school years. The most important assumption of the research stated better effects of outdoor classes of Physical Education in comparison with indoor classes and the shortage of experimental factor influence on the correlation change between objective and subjective indices of fitness and attitudes related to it. Results: In the experimental group the most distinct differences between initial and final tests concerned the endurance measurement, similarly to the control group in which, however, the improvement in the final test was less noticeable. The correlation among three analyzed variables was significant for both research groups. The comparison of results of students from the experimental and the control groups demonstrates a positive influence of outdoor lessons on the level of endurance and, to a lower degree, on the feeling of effort fatigue and mood. Conclusions: The research was conducted with a use of three research tools: the mood scale, Cooper’s test and the subjective fatigue feeling with finished effort scale that allow a positive verification of the presented hypothesis, which should be an encouragement for wider practicing of innovative activities to bring closer the assumed aims of Physical Education to the aims actually achieved.


  • Department of Biology, Ecology and Sports Medicine, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Kazimierza Gorskiego St.1, 80-336 Gdansk, Poland
  • Department of Biology, Ecology and Sports Medicine, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Kazimierza Gorskiego St.1, 80-336 Gdansk, Poland
  • Department of Biology, Ecology and Sports Medicine, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Kazimierza Gorskiego St.1, 80-336 Gdansk, Poland


  • 1.Umiastowska D. Potrzebny jest rowniez podrecznik [A coursebook is needed too]. Wychowanie Fizyczne i Zdrowotne. 1990; 1: 22-24. Polish.
  • 2. Przewęda R, editor. Wychowanie fizyczne w Polsce [Physical education in Poland]. Warszawa: AWF; 1992. Polish.
  • 3. Panczyk W. Biologiczno-zdrowotne I wychowawcze efekty lekcji wychowania fizycznego w tereniei w sali [Health-biological and educational effects of outdoor and indoor lessons of physical education]. Zamosc: ODN; 1999. Polish. 4. Madejski E. Wpływ modernizacji szkolnego systemu wychowania fizycznego naefektywnosc zajec oraz postawy uczniow wobec kultury fizycznej [Influence of modernization of school physical education scheme to efficiency of classes and pupils attitudes toward physical culture]. Krakow: AWF; 2000. Polish.
  • 5. Bronikowski M. Postawy prosomatyczne mlodziezy gimnazjalnej jako efekt interwencji edukacyjnej w procesie wychowania fizycznego [Pro somatic attitudes of Middle school youths as an effect educational intervention in physical education process]. Poznan: AWF; 2008. Polish.
  • 6. Pawlucki A. Rozwazania o wychowaniu [Deliberations about education]. Gdansk: AWF; 1994. Polish.
  • 7. Toczek-Werner S. Srodowisko przyrodnicze jako wartosc w kulturze fizycznej [Natural environment as a value in physical culture]. In: Blachaa R, Bigiel W, eds. Kultura fizyczna w srodowisku przyrodniczym w okresie letnim [Physical culture in natural environment in summertime]. Wroclaw: AWF; 2003, 7-15. Polish.
  • 8. Dolezal M. Srodowisko treningu w aspektach infekcyjno-higienicznych a zdrowotnosc trenujących [Training environment in infection-hygienic aspects and wholesomeness of trainings]. In: I Scientific Congress of Physical Culture and Sport. Warszawa: GKKFiS; 1981, 296-303. Polish.
  • 9. Blondeau P, Iordache V, Poupard O, Genin D, Allard F. Relationship between outdoor and indoor quality in eight French schools. Indoor Air. 2005;15(1):2-12.
  • 10. Mendell M, Heath G. Do indoor pollutants and thermal conditions in schools influence students’ performance? A critical review of the literature. Indoor Air. 2005; 15(1):27-52.
  • 11. Hakke C, Nonas N. Wycieczki I zajecia terenowe [Field trips and outdoor classes]. Warszawa: WSiP; 1977. Polish.
  • 12. Pienkos K, Sawicka K, Krauze M. Zielone sale gimnastyczne [Green gymnasiums]. Aura 2002; 92:5. Polish.
  • 13. Tywoniuk-Malysz A, Panczyk W. Terenowe zabawy i gry dydaktyczne o charakterze ruchowym [Motor character of outdoor didactic game play]. Zamosc: ODN; 1996. Polish.
  • 14. Pilch T. Zasady badan pedagogicznych [The rules governing the pedagogical research]. Warszawa: Wyd. Zak; 1995. Polish.
  • 15. Cooper KH. The Aerobics Way. New York: Bantam Books; 1981.
  • 16. Drabik J. Wytrzymalosc I jej ukierunkowanie somatyczne u mlodziezy w wieku 8-19 lat [Endurance and its somatic determinants in children and adolescents in age 8-19]. Gdansk: AWF; 1989. Polish.
  • 17. Chow J, Wilmore J. The regulation of exercise intensity by ratings of perceived exertion. J Cardiac Rehabil. 1984:4:382-387.
  • 18. Noble B, Borg G,Jacobs J, Ceci R, Kaiser P. A category ratio perceived exertion scale: relationship to blood and muscle lactates and heart-rate. Med Sci Sports Ex. 1983;15(2):520-524.
  • 19. Bergier J, Bytniewski M, Wilczewski A. Rozwoj fizyczny, sprawnosc I wydolnosc dzieci ze srodkowowschodniego makroregionu Polski [Physical development, fitness and capacity of children from middleeast macroregion of Poland]. BialaPodlaska: AWF; 1990. Polish
  • 20. Czaplicki Z. Ocena wytrzymalosci ogolnej dzieci I mlodziezy szkol podstawowych testem 12-minutowym [Grading of overall endurance of children and adolescents from primary schools by 12-minute test]. Lider. 1996;1:18-21. Polish.
  • 21. Corcill J, Williams LRT, Robets K. Twelve-minute run standardsfor New Zealand secondary schools. NZJHPER. 1975;2:67-71.
  • 22. Roche DP. The development of norms for run – walk tests for children aged 7 to 17. Charper J. 1980;7- 8:6-13.
  • 23. Eston, RG, Lamb KL. Effort Perception. In: Armstrong N, van Mecheleneds W, eds. Paediatric Exercise Science and Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000, 85-91.
  • 24. Yelling M, Lamb KL. Swaine I. Production during stepping exercise in adolescent children. Eur Phys Educ Rev. 2002;8:157-175.
  • 25. Williams JG, Eston RG, Furlong B. CERT: A perceived exertion scale for young children. Percep Motor Skill. 1994;79:1451-1458.
  • 26. Drabik J. Aktywnosc fizyczna dzieci, młodziezy i doroslych [Physical activity of children, adolescents and adults]. Gdansk: AWF; 1995. Polish.
  • 27. Simons-Morton BG, Parcel GS, O'Hara NM, Blair SN, Pate RR. Health-related physical fitness in childhood: status and recommendations. Annl Rev Public Health. 1988;9:403-425.
  • 28. Hofman A, Walter HJ, Connelly PA, Vaughan RD. Blood pressure and physical fitness in children. Hypertension. 1987;9:188-191.
  • 29. Fraser GE, Phillips RL, Harris R. Physical fitness and blood pressure in school children. Circulation. 1983;67(2):405-412.
  • 30. Rubana IM. Attendance of sports classes and some health parameters of pupils. Zdrowie Publiczne. 2008;118(3):272-276. Polish.
  • 31. Morse A. The effects of exercise on the stress response. Res Q Ex Sport. 1994;3:A-50.
  • 32. Greenberg JS. Comprehensive stress management. Iowa, WC: Brown Publ. Dubuque; 1987.
  • 33. Serfass R, Gerberich S. Exercise for optimal health: Strategies and motivational considerations. Prevent Med. 1984;13(1):79-99.

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.