Malignancies were one of the earliest diagnosed manifestations that resulted in the description of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Most cancers in AIDS patients are associated with coinfection with oncogenic viruses. Knowledge and public awareness about HIV infectious materials are important elements in preventing the spread of HIV infections. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge about HIV infectious materials among three populations in Poland. A Poland-wide online survey was conducted and 2205 anonymous answers were analysed. Almost half of the answers came from students, of which 40% were medical students.