It is likely to provide plants with their necessary nutrients using chemical and biological fertilization. Although chemical fertilization is a quick method, it is not recommendable economically and environmentally, especially if overused. Biological fertilization is the use of soil microbes including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to inoculate plants. It has been proved that biological fertilization is an efficient method to supply plants with their necessary nutrients. It is economically and environmentally recommendable, because it results in sustainability. In this article, some of the most important details including the mechanisms and processes regarding the effects of soil microbes on the availability and hence uptake of nutrients by plant are reviewed. Such details can be important for the selection and hence production of microbial inoculums, which are appropriate for biological fertilization.