Drought stress has a negative impact on plant cells and results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To increase our understanding of the effects of drought stress on antioxidant processes, we investigated the response of the ascorbate-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana vtc1 mutant to drought stress. After drought stress, vtc1 mutants exhibited increases in several oxidative parameters, including H2O2 content and the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Decreases in chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were also observed. The vtc1 mutants had higher total glutathione than did wild-type (WT) plants after 48 h of drought stress. A reduced ratio of glutathione/total glutathione and an increased ratio of dehydroascorbate/total ascorbate were observed in the vtc1 mutants compared with the WT plants. In addition, the activities of enzymes that are responsible for ROS scavenging, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, were decreased in the vtc1 mutants compared with the WT plants. Similar reductions in activity in the vtc1 mutant were observed for the enzymes that are responsible for the regeneration of ascorbate and glutathione, including monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase. These results suggest that low intrinsic ascorbate and impaired ascorbate–glutathione cycling in the vtc1 mutant induced a decrease in the reduced form of ascorbate, which enhanced sensitivity to drought stress.