Our paper presents the problem of real hazards for products (edible or inedible) and animals identified as a result of border control in international road transport. A border control system used on the Polish part of the eastern border of the European Union was selected and some data were analyzed concerning the number of checks and shipments rejected due to the epidemiological risk. The data have been collected from annual control reports for Poland. It has been shown that the biggest biological threat comes from the border with Belarus (most shipments were rejected). It was noted that the proportion of imported shipments rejected on the borders had a very strongly positive correlation (correlation coefficients: 0.96 and 0.99).