Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2019 | 28 | 4 |

Tytuł artykułu

Assessing coastal water quality through an overall index

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



Over the years, water quality indices have been studied and used in many countries. However, research has focused on fresh water more than coastal water. For coastal countries, the coastal water quality index (WQI) is an important tool for coastal environmental management. This study presents the development of a WQI for coastal waters. A group of 20 scientists were asked to select representative parameters and their importance in the marine environment. The sub-index of each selected variable was developed based on coastal water quality criteria of different countries, and requirements of water quality for coral reefs and seabed grass. After analyzing the eclipsing and ambiguous effects, and the sensitivity of four aggregation methods, the weighted geometric mean function was used to integrate sub-indices of 8 parameters, including total suspended solids (0.18), oil and grease (0.18), total nitrogen or ammonia (0.12), total phosphorus or phosphate (0.12), chlorophyll-a (0.11), chemical oxygen demand (0.11), total coliforms or fecal coliforms (0.09), and saturated oxygen percentage (0.08). The weights of the parameter are given in parentheses. The normal weighted geometric mean function has been modified so that it could be applied in cases of lacking data. The application of the developed index for the coastal zone of Vietnam showed that it accurately reflected the state of water quality in 2017.

Słowa kluczowe








Opis fizyczny



  • Faculty of Marine and Coastal Engineering, Thuy loi University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Environmental Engineering and Water Technology Department, UN-IHE, Delft, Netherlands


  • 1. OTT W.R. Water Quality Indices: A survey of indices used in the United States; Oxford University. U.S., 65, 1978.
  • 2. Tirkey P., Bhattacharya T., Chakraborty S., Water quality indices- Important tools for water quality assessment. International Journal of Advances in Chemistry, 1 (1), 15, 2013.
  • 3. Naubi I., Zardari N.H., Shirazi , S.M., Ibrahim N.F.B., Baloo L. Effectiveness of water quality index for monitoring Malaysian River water quality. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 25 (1), 231, 2016.
  • 4. KHALIK W.M.A.W.M., ABDULLAH M.P., AMERUDIN N.A., PADLI N. Physicochemical analysis on water quality status of Bertam River in Cameron highlands, Malaysia. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 4 (4), 488, 2013.
  • 5. BORA M., GOSWAMI D.C. Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index (WQI): Case study of the Kolong River, Assam, India. Applied Water Science, 7 (6), 3125, 2016.
  • 6. ROY R., MAJUMDER M., BARMAN R.N. Assessment of water quality by RSM and ANP: A case study in Tripura, India. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 14 (1), 51, 2017.
  • 7. EWAID S.H., ABED S.A. Water quality index for Al-Gharraf River, Southern Iraq. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 43 (2), 117, 2017.
  • 8. MORA-OROZCO C.D.L, FLORES-LOPEZ H., RUBIOARIAS H., CHAVEZ-DURAN A., & OCHOA-RIVERO J. Developing a water quality index (WQI) for an irrigation dam. International Journal of Environmental Research and
  • 9. RUBIO-ARIAS H., CONTRERAS-CARAVEO M., QUINTANA R.M., SAUCEDO-TERAN R.A., PINALESMUNGUIA A. An overall water quality index (WQI) for a man-made aquatic reservoir in Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9 (5), 1687, 2012.
  • 10. CYMES I., GLIŃSKA-LEWCZUK K. The use of water quality indices (WQI and SAR) for multipurpose assessment of water in dam reservoirs. Journal of Elementology, 21 (4), 1211, 2016.
  • 11. NNAJI C.C., MAMA C.N., EKONG C.I., AGU C.C. A comparative evaluation of the water quality standards of different countries. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 13 (2), 15, 2016.
  • 12. PRAKIRAKE C., CHAIPRASERT P., TRIPETCHKUL S. Development of specific water quality index for water supply in Thailand. Songklanakarin Journal Science and Technololy, 31 (1), 91, 2009.
  • 13. HANH P.T.M. Development of water quality indices for surface water quality evaluation in Vietnam; PhD. Thesis, Korea, 67, 2009.
  • 14. 14. Fataei E., Seyyedsharifi , S.A., Seiiedsafaviyan , S.T., Nasrollahzadeh, S. Water quality assessment based on WQI and CWQI indexes in Balikhlou River, Iran. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3 (3), 263, 2013.
  • 15. OKUNLOLA I.A., AMADI A.N., IDRIS-NDA A., AGBASI K., KOLAWOLE. L. L. Assessment of water quality of Gurara water transfer from Gurara dam to lower Usuma dam for Abuja water supply, FCT, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources, 2 (4), 74, 2014.
  • 16. Environment Canada . CCME national water quality index workshop: A path forward for consistent implementation and reporting, November 24-25, 2003. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Workshop proceedings, 81, 2003.
  • 17. RUBIO-ARIAS H., OCHOA-RIVERO J.M., QUINTANA R.M., SAUCEDO-TERAN R., ORTIZ-DELGADO R.C., REY-BURCIAGA N.I., ESPINOZA-PRIETO J. R. Development of a water quality index (WQI) of an artificial aquatic ecosystem in Mexico. Journal of Environmental Protection, 4, 1296, 2013.
  • 18. HO P.N. Total water quality index using weighting factors and standardized into a parameter. EnvironmentAsia, 5 (2), 63, 2012.
  • 19. Li R., Zou Z., An Y. Water quality assessment in Qu River based on fuzzy water pollution index method. Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), 50, 87, 2016.
  • 20. RAMAN B.V, REINIER B., MOHAN S. Fuzzy logic water quality index and importance of water quality parameters. Air, Soil and Water Research, 2, 51, 2009.
  • 21. EPA U.S., NOAA. National coastal condition report IV; United State Environmental Protection Agency, U.S, 5, 2012.
  • 22. DARKO H.F., ANSA-ASARE O., PAINTSIL A. A number description of Ghanaian Water Quality - A case study of the Southwestern and coastal rivers systems of Ghana. Journal of Environmental Protection, 4 (11), 1318, 2013.
  • 23. NGUYEN N.T.T, HOI N.C., LOAN D.K. Development of water quality index for coastal zone and application in Ha Long Bay. VNU Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 29 (4), 43, 2013.
  • 24. GARTNER LEE LIMITED. A sensitivity analysis of the Canadian water quality index; A report for the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Canada, 28, 2006.
  • 25. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE). National report on environmental status on the period 2011-2015; Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Hanoi, Vietnam, 96, 2016 [In Vietnamese].
  • 26. Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA). Manila Bay: Initial risk assessment. Global Environment Facility/United Nations Development Programme/International Maritime Organization Regional Programme on Building Partnerships in Environmental Management for PEMSEA; Quezon City, Philippines, 93, 2001.
  • 27. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council Agriculture (ANZECC) and Australian Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (ARMCANZ). Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality; Canberra, Australia, Volume 1, 3.3- 22, 3.3-25, Volume 2, 8.1-8.12 (1st ed.), 2000.
  • 28. Gupta a.K., Gupta S.K., Patil R.S. A comparison of water quality indices for coastal water. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 38 (11), 2711, 2003.
  • 29. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE). National Report on coastal environment in Vietnam. Hanoi, Vietnam, 40, 2017

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.