Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2017 | 09 | 2 |

Tytuł artykułu

Effectiveness of the “Slimming Down Olsztyn Residents” health program – Motivation to participate and withdraw

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



This study aimed to determine the motivation of overweight/obese persons to participate in and withdraw from a health promotion program, and to determine the program’s effectiveness. 91 women and 89 men enrolled in the program. Their motivation was described with modified EMI-2. The reasons for withdrawal were given by the participants. Body composition was determined with Tanita BC 418 MA. Improved appearance, weight loss and health were the main reasons why overweight/obese persons decided to become physically active. Approximately 56% women and 60% men quit the program because they were unable to cope with the fitness regime, lost interest or could not find the time. The participants who completed the program (> 600 MET) significantly (p < 0.01) reduced their BM (1.84 kg and 2.37 kg), BMI (0.70 kg/m2 and 0.74 kg/m2), fat percentage (1.58% and 1.81%) and fat mass (1.70 kg and 2.20 kg). Significant loss of the adipose tissue and an increase in muscle mass were observed in various parts of the body. The 7-month health program involving physical activities with MET > 600 led to a significant decrease in fat mass and fat percentage and a significant increase in muscle mass.

Słowa kluczowe


  • Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland
  • Department of Heavy Duty Machines and Research Methodology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland
  • Department of Tourism and Recreation, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland


  • [1] Bhaskaran K, Douglas I, Forbes H, dos-Santos-Silva I, Leon DA, Smeeth L. Body mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5.24 million UK adults. Lancet. 2014;30,384(9945):755-765. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60892-8.
  • [2] Luppino FS, Wit LM, Bouvy PF, et al. Overweight, obesity and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiat. 2010;67(3):220-229.
  • [3] Green JS, Stanforth PR, Rankinen T, et al. The effects of exercise training on abdominal visceral fat, body composition, and indicators of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen replacement therapy: the HERITAGE family study. Metab Clin Exp. 2004;53:1192-1196.
  • [4] Janiszewski PM, Ross R. The utility of physical activity in the management of global cardiometabolic risk. Obesity. 2009;17(3):3-14.
  • [5] Hollar D, Messiah SE, Lopez-Mitnik G, Hollar TS, Almon M, Agaston AS. Effect of two-year obesity prevention intervention on percentile changes in Body Mass Index and academic performance in low-income elementary school children. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(4):646-653.
  • [6] Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA. 2014;311(8):806-814. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.732.
  • [7] Bauman A, Bull F, Chey T, et al. The international prevalence study on physical activity: Results from 20 countries. IJBNPA. 2009;6:21. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-21.
  • [8] World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity. Poland. WHO Press, 2013. available at:, accessed on 2017-03-11
  • [9] Raportu z badań TGI przy współpracy z Instytutem Badawczym MillwardBorn. Bieżące statystyki nadwagi i otyłości w Polsce na podstawie interaktywnej mapy otyłości w Polsce. (dane za drugie półrocze 2015 roku) [A report of the Target Group Index and the MillwardBrown Research Institute. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Poland based on an interactive map of obesity in Poland. Data for the second half of 2015]. Available at:, accessed on 11.03.2017.
  • [10] World Health Organization. Preventing chronic diseases: a vital investment. Geneva: WHO; 2005.
  • [11] Bradley DW. The epidemic of overweight and obesity: A challenge to medicine, public health and public policy. NC Med J. 2006;67(4):268-272.
  • [12] Guajardo F, Warren B, Wang L. From child’s play to an effective wellness program. IJKSS. 2013;1(1):16-22.
  • [13] Lee SM, Burgeson CR, Fulton JE, Spain CG. Physical education and physical activity: Results from the school health policies and programs study 2006. J School Health. 2007;77(8):435-463.
  • [14] Veugelers PJ, Fitzgerald AL. Effectiveness of school programs in preventing childhood obesity. A multilevel comparison. Am J Pub Health. 2005;95:432-435. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.045898.
  • [15] Nyman JA, Barleen NA, Abraham JM. The effectiveness of health promotion at the university of Minnesota: expenditures, absenteeism, and participation in specific programs. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52(3):269-280. doi: 1097/JOM.0b013e318cf3aed.
  • [16] Molanorouzi K, Khoo S, Morris, T. Validating the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS). BMC Public Health. 2014;14:909.
  • [17] Raschidlamir Amin, Raschidlamir Amir, Ghanbari-Niaki A, Sabosi M. Effect of anaerobic (RAST) and aerobic (Cooper) running training programs on plasma AqRP concentration in female students. Iran J Health Phys Act. 2011;2(2):25-28.
  • [18] Klika B, Jordan Ch. High-intensity circuit training using body weight: Maximum results with minimal investment. ACSM’s Health Fit J. 2013;17(3):8-13.
  • [19] Parker BA, Kalasky MJ, Proctor DN. Evidence for sex differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptive response to physical activity. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;110(2):235-246. doi: 10.1007/s00421-010-1506-7.
  • [20] Bryl W, Matuszak K, Hoffmann K, Physical activity of children and adolescent with intellectual disabilities – a public health problem. Hygeia Public Health. 2013;48(1):1-5.
  • [21] Sanders ME. Hit The Pool. ACSM’s Health Fit J. 2014;18(2):30-34.
  • [22] Kirkwood G, Rampes H, Tuffrey V, Richardson J, Pilkington K. Yoga for anxiety: a systematic review of the research evidence. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:884-891, doi:10.1136/bjsm.2005.018069
  • [23] Bushman BA. Dogs. Can they help promote human health? ACSM’s Health Fit J. 2014;18(1):5-8.
  • [24] Dwyer JJM, Hansen B, Barrera M, et al. Maximizing children’s physical activity: An evaluability assessment to plan a community-based, multi-strategy approach in an ethno-racially and socioeconomically diverse city. Health Prom Int. 2003;18(3):199-208.
  • [25] van der Sluis ME, Lien N, Twisk JW, et al. Longitudinal associations of energy balance-related behaviours and cross-sectional associations of clusters and body mass index in Norwegian adolescents. Public Health Nutrition. 2010;13(10A):1716-1721.
  • [26] Biernat E, Stupnicki R, Gajewski A. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) Polish Version. Phys Educ Sport. 2007;51(1):47-54.
  • [27] Ingledew DK, Markland D, Strömmer SS. Elucidating the roles of motives and gains in exercise participation. Sport, Exercise & Performance Psychology. 2013; 3: 116-131.
  • [28] Jendrysek M, Nowosielska-Swadźba D, Zwolińska D, Podstawski R. Body composition of young people aged 17-18 years, practicing and not practicing swimming with the use of the bioelectrical impedance method. Pedagogics Psychology Medical-Biological Problems of Physical Training and Sport. 2015;11:67-71.
  • [29] Luszniewicz A. Słaby T. Statystyka z pakietem komputerowym STATISTICA PL. Teoria i zastosowania, wydanie 3 [Statistics of computer package STATISTICA PL. Theory and applications, third edition. In Polish]. Gliwice: C.H. Beck Press; 2008. Polish.
  • [30] Podstawski R, Honkanen A, Choszcz D, Boraczyński M. Maximizing university students’ motor fitness by implementing a physical education program incorporating martial arts – implicational study. JCSMA. 2013;4(2):197-205.
  • [31] Podstawski R. Borysławski K, Urbańska-Gizińska R. Physical and motor development of the students enrolled at the University of Warmia & Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland, in relation to their financial and urbanization status. Physical Education of Students. 2014;6:81-89.
  • [32] Kilpatric M, Herbert E, Bartholomew J. College students’ motivation for physical activity: differentiating men’s and women’s motives for sport participation and exercise. J Am Coll Health. 2005;54(2):87-94.
  • [33] Fostiak D. Fitness w formie rekreacyjnej jako aktywność ruchowa w opinii kobiet [Fitness as physical recreation activity – women’s opinions]. In: Kiełbasiewicz-Drozdowska J, Marcinkowski M, Osiński W, eds. Aktywność rekreacyjna sportowa i turystyczna w różnych środowiskach społeczno zawodowych. Diagnoza i propozycje rozwiązań [Sports and tourism as recreational activities in different social and professional environments. Diagnosis and solution proposals], Poznań: PTNARiT; 2000, 281-287.
  • [34] Lipowski M. Fitness a holistyczny model zdrowia. O motywach uczestniczenia kobiet w rekreacji ruchowej [Fitness and the holistic model of health – why do women participate in physical recreation]. In: T. Lisicki T, Wilk B, A. Walentukiewicz A, eds. Prozdrowotny styl życia. Uwarunkowania społeczne [Health-promoting lifestyle. Social determinants]. Gdańsk: AWFiS; 2005, 73-80
  • [35] Opoka DM. Fitness clubs consumer characteristics in Łódź. Physical Activity of People at Different Age. 2008;12:149-163.
  • [36] Opoka DM. Profile of fitness service client in Rzeszów. Physical Activity of People at Different Age. 2008;12:143-148.
  • [37] Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RP, et al. Physical activity and public health: Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2007;39(8):1423-1434.
  • [38] King AC. Interventions to promote physical activity by older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56(suppl 2):36-46. doi:10.1093/gerona/56.suppl_2.36.
  • [39] Robinson J, Rogers M. Adherence to exercise programs: recommendations. Sports Medicine. 1994;17:39-52.
  • [40] Dishman RK, Salis JF. Determinants and interventions for physical activity and exercise. In Bouchard C, Shepard RJ, Stephens T, eds. Physical activity, fitness, and health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1994, 214-238.
  • [41] Neupert SD, Lachman ME, Whitbourne SB. Exercise self-efficacy and control beliefs predict exercise behavior after an exercise intervention for older adults. JAPA. 2009;17(1):1-16.
  • [42] Simkin-Silverman L, Wing RR, Hansen DH, et al. Prevention of cardiovascular risk factor evaluations in healthy premenopausal women. Prev Med. 1995;24:509-517.
  • [43] Straight CR, Dorfman LR, Cottell KE, Krol JM, Lofgren IE, Delmonico MJ. Effect of resistance training and dietary changes on physical function and body composition in overweight and obese older adults. JPAH. 2012;9:875-883.
  • [44] Dunn AL, Marcus BH, Kamper JB, Garcia ME, Kohl HW, Blair SN. Comparison of lifestyle and structured interventions to increase physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. A randomized trial. JAMA. 1999;281(4):327-334.
  • [45] McFerran B, Mukhopadhyay A. Lay theories of obesity predict actual body mass. Psychol Sci. doi: June 5, 2013:10.1177/0956797612473121.
  • [46] Christakis NA, Fowler JH. The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:370-379.
  • [47] Stefanick ML, Mackey S, Sheeham M, Ellsworth N, Haskell WL, Wood PD. Effect of diet and exercise in men and postemenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:12-20.
  • [48] Andersen RE, Wadden TA, Bartlett SJ, Zemel B, Verde TJ, Franckowiak SC. Effect of lifestyle activity vs structured aerobic exercise in obese women. JAMA. 1999;281(4):335-340.
  • [49] Pavlou KN, Steffee WP, Lerman RH, Burrows V. Effects of dieting and exercise on lean body mass, oxygen uptake, and strength. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 1985;17:466-471
  • [50] Kayman S, Bruvold W, Stern JS. Maintance and relapse after weight loss in women: behavioral aspects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52:800-807.
  • [51] Pavlou KN, Krey S, Steffee WP. Exercise as an adjunct to weight loss and maintenance in moderately obese subject. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:1115-1123.
  • [52] Dobrosielski DA, Gibbs BB, Chaundhari S, Ouyang P, Silber HA, Stewart KJ. Effect of exercise on abdominal fat loss in men and women with and without type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open. 2013;3:e003897. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003897.
  • [53] Vissers D, Hens W, Taeymans J, Baeyens J-P, Poortmans J, Gall LV. The effect of exercise on visceral adipose tissue in overweight adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56415. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056415.
  • [54] Osiński W. Antropomotoryka [Kinesiology]. Poznań: AWF Press; 2005. Polish.
  • [55] Blaak E. Gender differences in fat metabolism. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2001;4:499-502.
  • [56] Nazar K, Kaciuba-Uściłko H. Physical activity in obesity prevention and treatment. Pol Tyg Lek. 1995;50(Supl.1):68-69.
  • [57] Katch FI, Clarkson PM, Kroll W, McBridge T, Wilcox A. Effects of sit-up exercise training on adipose cell size and adiposity. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1984;55(3):242-247.

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.