Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2011 | 33 | 6 |

Tytuł artykułu

Ambient ozone and two black gram cultivars: an assessment of amelioration by the use of ethylenediurea

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



Ethylenediurea (EDU) was applied as soil drench in two Indian cultivars of black gram (Vigna mungo L. cv. Azad-1 and BHU-1) and its ameliorating effect against ozone (O₃) stress was studied on selected growth, physiological, biochemical, and yield characteristics. The study site experienced a high O₃ concentration of 41.3–59.9 ppb during the experimental period. It was found that growth parameters showed positive impact on plants treated with EDU and yield attributes were also higher than that of non-EDU-treated ones. Significant increments in ascorbic acid and protein contents were observed in EDU-treated plants as compared to control plants. Lipid peroxidation, however, showed a reverse trend in both the cultivars. Photosynthetic efficiency increased by EDU treatment as depicted by higher values for photosynthetic rate (Ps) and Fv/Fm ratio. EDU-treated plants had more efficient antioxidant enzyme defense system with higher SOD and POX activities. Both the cultivars showed differential response against O₃ and cultivar BHU-1 proved to be resistant as compared to Azad-1. This investigation proves the usefulness of EDU as a biomonitoring tool against O₃ for the remote areas having higher concentrations of O₃ and problem of frequent electricity failure.

Słowa kluczowe








Opis fizyczny



  • Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Cimate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
  • Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Cimate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India


  • Agrawal SB, Agrawal M (1999) Low temperature scanning electron microscope studies of stomatal response in snap bean plants treated with ozone and ethylenediurea. Biotronics 28:45–53
  • Agrawal M, Rajput M, Singh RK (2003) Use of ethylenediurea to assess the effects of ambient ozone on Vigna radiata. IJOB 32:35–48
  • Agrawal SB, Singh A, Rathore D (2004) Assessing the effects of ambient air pollution on growth, biochemical and yield characteristics of three cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with ethylenediurea and ascorbic acid. J Plant Biol 31(3):165–172
  • Agrawal SB, Singh A, Rathore D (2005) Role of ethylenediurea (EDU) in assessing impact of ozone on Vigna radiata L plants in a suburban area of Allahabad (India). Chemos 61:218–228
  • Al-Qurainy FH (2008) Effect of air pollution and ethylenediurea on broad bean plants grown at two localities in KSA. Int J Bot 4(1):117–122
  • Batini P, Ederli L, Pasqualini S, Antoneilli M, Valeniti V (1995) Effects of ethylenediurea and ozone in detoxificant ascorbicascorbate peroxidase system in tobacco. Plant Physiol Biochem 33:717–723
  • Blum O, Didyk N (2007) Study of ambient ozone phytotoxicity in Ukraine and ozone protective effect of some antioxidants. J Hazard Mat 149:598–602
  • Britton C, Mehley AC (1955) Assay of catalase and peroxidase. In: Colowick SP, Kalpan NO (eds) Methods in enzymology, vol 2. Academic Press Inc., New York
  • Brunschon-Harti S, Fangmeier A, Jager HJ (1995) Effects of ethylenediurea and ozone on the antioxidative systems in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Environ Pollut 90(1):95–103
  • Bytnerowicz A, Manning WJ, Grosjean D, Chmielswki W, Dmuchowski W, Grodzinska K, Godzik B (1993) Detecting ozone and demonstrating its phytotoxicity in forested areas in Poland: a pilot study. Environ Pollut 80:301–306
  • Calatayud A, Barreno E (2001) Chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tomato in response to ozone and benomyl. Environ Pollut 115:283–289
  • Calatayud A, Alvarado JW, Barreno E (2002) Differences in ozone sensitivity in three varieties of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) in the rural Mediterranean area. J Plant Physiol 159:863–868
  • Carnahan JE, Jenner EL, Wat EKW (1978) Prevention of ozone injury in plants by a new protective chemical. Phytopatholology 68:1225–1229
  • Clark CS, Weber JA, Lee EH, Hogsett WE (1996) Reductions in gas exchange of Populus tremuloides caused by leaf aging and ozone exposure. Can J Forest Res 26:1384–1391
  • De Tullio MC, Pacciolla C, Dalla Vecchia F, Rascio N, Emerico S, De Gara L, Liso R, Arrigoni O (1999) Changes in onion root development induced by the inhibition of peptidyl-propyl hydroxylase and influence of the ascorbate system on cell division and elongation. Planta 209:424–434
  • Duxbury AC, Yentsch CS (1956) Plankton pigment monographs. J Mar Res 15:91–101
  • Eckardt NA, Pell EJ (1996) Effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) on ozone-induced acceleration of foliar senescence in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Environ Pollut 92(3):299–306
  • Elagoz V, Manning WJ (2002) Ozone and bean plants: morphology matters. Environ Pollut 120:521–524
  • Feng Z, Wang S, Szantoi S, Chen S, WangX(2010) Protection of plants from ambient ozone by applications of ethylenediurea (EDU): a meta-analytic review. Environ Pollut 158(10):3236–3242
  • Fridovich I (1974) Superoxide dismutases. Adv Enzymol 41:35–97
  • Hassan IA (2006) Physiology and biochemical response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kara) to O₃ and antioxidant chemicals: possible roles of antioxidant enzymes. Annals Appl Biol 148:197–206
  • Hassan IA, Tewfik I (2006) CO₂ photoassimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Giza 65) in response to O₃. World Review of Science. Technol Sustainable Dev 3(1):70–78
  • He J, Huang LK, Chow WS, Whitecross MI, Anderson JM (1994) Chloroplast ultrastructure changes in Pisum sativum L. associated with supplementary ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation. Plant Cell Environ 17:771–775
  • Heath RL, Packer L (1968) Phytoperoxidation in isolated chloroplast. I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archive Biochem Biophys 125(1):189–198
  • Keller T, Schwager H (1977) Air pollution and ascorbic acid. Eur J Forest Pathol 7:338–350
  • Lee EH, Bennett JH (1982) Superoxide dismutase: a possible protective enzyme against ozone injury in snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L). Plant Physiol 69:1444–1449
  • Lee EH, Chen CM (1982) Studies on the mechanisms of ozone tolerance. Cytokinin like activity of N [2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl) ethyl]-N-phenylurea, a compound protecting against O₃ injury. Plant Physiol 56:486–491
  • Lee EH, Bennett JH, Heggestad HE (1981) Retardation of senescence in red clover leaf discs by a new antiozonant EDU, N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl) ethyl]-N'-phenylurea. Plant Physiol 67:347–350
  • Lee EH, Upadhyay A, Agrawal M, Rowland RA (1997) Mechanism of ethylenediurea (EDU) induced ozone protection: re-examination of free radical scavenger systems in snap bean exposed to O₃. Environ Exp Bot 38:199–209
  • Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275
  • Machlachlan S, Zalik S (1963) Plastid structure, chlorophyll concentration and free amino acid composition of chlorophyll mutant barley. Can J Bot 4:1053–1063
  • Manning WJ, Cooley DR, Tuttle AF, Frenkel MA, Bergweiler CJ (2004) Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots. Environ Pollut 1(32):503–508
  • Mauzerall DL, Wang X (2001) Protecting agricultural crops from the effects of tropospheric ozone exposure: reconciling science and standard setting in the United States, Europe and Asia. Annu Rev Energ Environ I 26:237–268
  • Mikkelson TN, Dodell B, Lutz C (1995) Changes in pigment concentration and composition in Norway spruce induced by long term exposure to low levels of ozone. Environ Pollut 87:197–205
  • Morison JIL (1998) Stomatal response to increased CO₂ concentration. J Exp Bot 49:443–452
  • Mudd JB (1997) Biochemical basis for the toxicity of ozone. In: Yunus M, Iqbal M (eds) Plant response to air pollution. Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 267–284
  • Nakano Y, Asada K (1987) Purification of ascorbate peroxidase in spinach chloroplast; its inactivation in ascorbate depleted medium and reactivation by monodehydro ascorbate radical. Plant Cell Physiol 28:131–140
  • Noctor G, Foyer CH (1998) Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Annual Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 49:249–279
  • Pandey J, Agrawal M (1992) Ozone: concentration variabilities in a seasonally dry tropical climate. Environ Internat 18:515–520
  • Paoletti E, Contran N, Manning WJ (2007) Ethylenediurea (EDU) affects the growth of ozone-sensitive and tolerant Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees under ambient O₃ conditions. The Scientific World Journal 7(S1):128–133
  • Paoletti E, Contran N, Manning WJ, Castagna A, Ranieri A, Tagliaferro F (2008) Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth. Environ Pollut 155(3):464–472
  • Pell EJ, Schlagnhaufer CD, Arteca RN (1997) Ozone-induced oxidative stress: mechanisms of action and reaction. Plant Physiol 100:264–273
  • Rai R, Agrawal M (2008) Evaluation of physiology and biochemical responses of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to ambient air pollution using open top chambers at a rural site in India. Sci Tot Environ 407:679–691
  • Regner-Joosten K, Manderscheid R, Bergmann R, Bahadir M, Weigel HJ (1994) HPLC method to study the uptake and partitioning of the antioxidant EDU in bean plants. Ang Bot 68:151–155
  • Sarkar A, Agrawal SB (2010a) Identification of ozone stress in Indian rice through foliar injury and differential protein profile. Environ Monit Assess 161:205–215
  • Sarkar A, Agrawal SB (2010b) Elevated ozone and two modern wheat cultivars: an assessment of dose dependent sensitivity with respect to growth, reproductive and yield parameters. Environ Exp Bot 69:328–337
  • Sarkar A, Rakwal R, Agrawal SB, Shibato J, Ogawa Y, Yoshida Y, Agrawal GK, Agrawal M (2010) Investigating the impact of elevated levels of ozone on tropical wheat using integrated phenotypical, physiological, biochemical and proteomics approaches. J Proteome Res 9(9):4565–4584
  • Singh S, Agrawal SB (2009) Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) in assessing the impact of ozone on growth and productivity of five cultivars of Indian wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Environ. Monit. Asses. 159(1):125–141
  • Singh S, Agrawal SB (2010) Impact of tropospheric ozone on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the eastern Gangetic plains of India as assessed by ethylenediurea (EDU) application during different developmental stages. Agri Ecosys Environ 138:214–221
  • Singh S, Agrawal SB, Agrawal M (2009) Differential protection of ethylenediurea against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat. Environ Pollut 157:2359–2367
  • Singh S, Kaur D, Agrawal SB, Agrawal M (2010a) Responses of two cultivars of Trifolium repens L. to ethylenediurea (EDU) in relation to ambient ozone. J Environ Sci 22(7):1096–1103
  • Singh S, Agrawal M, Agrawal SB, Emberson L, Büker P (2010b) Use of ethylenediurea for assessing the impact of ozone on mung bean plants at a rural site in a dry tropical region of India. IJEWM 5(1/2):125–139
  • Smirnoff N (1996) The function and metabolism of ascorbic acid in plants. Ann Bot 78:661–669
  • Smirnoff N (2000) Ascorbic acid: metabolism and functions of a multi-facetted molecule. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:229–235
  • Smith GB, Greenhalgh E, Brennan Justin J (1987) Soybean yield in New Jersey relative to ozone pollution and antioxidant application. Plant Dis Rep 71:121–125
  • Tiwari S, Agrawal M (2009) Protection of palak (Beta vulgaris L var. All green) plants from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): roles of biochemical and physiological variations in alleviating the adverse impacts. Chemos 75:1492–1499
  • Tiwari S, Agrawal M (2010) Effectiveness of different EDU concentrations in ameliorating ozone stress in carrot plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 73:1018–1027
  • Tiwari S, Agrawal M, Manning WJ (2005) Assessing the effects of ambient ozone on growth and productivity of two cultivars of wheat in India using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU). Environ Pollut 138:153–160
  • Tiwari S, Rai R, Agrawal M (2008) Annual and seasonal variations in tropospheric ozone concentrations around Varanasi. IJRS 29:4499–4514
  • Van Dingenen R, Dentener FJ, Frank R, Maurten CK, Emberson L, Cofala J (2009) The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation. Atmos Environ 43:604–618
  • Vingarzan R (2004) A review of surface ozone background levels and trends. Atmos Environ 38:3431–3442
  • Wahid A, Milne E, Shamshi SRA, Ashmore MR, Marshall FM (2001) Effects of oxidants on soybean growth and yield in the Pakistan Punjab. Environ Pollut 113:271–280
  • Wang X, Zheng Q, Yao F, Chen Z, Feng Z, Manning WJ (2007) Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU). Environ Pollut 148:390–395
  • Whitaker BD, Lee EH, Rowland RA (1990) EDU and O₃ production: foliar glycerolipids and steryl lipids in snap bean exposed to O₃. Physiol Plant 80:286–293
  • Wu Y, Tiedemann AV (2002) Impact of fungicides on active oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to ozone. Environ Pollut 116:37–47
  • Zouzoulas D, Koutroubas SD, Vassiliou G, Vardavakis E (2009) Effects of ozone fumigation on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) morphology, anatomy, physiology, yield and qualitative characteristics of fibers. Environ Exp Bot 67:293–303


Rekord w opracowaniu

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.