This paper describes the variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) provenances in the IUFRO experiment located in Rogów (central Poland). The silvicultural quality and growth of 17 European provenances at the age of 28 years were examined, including height, diameter at breast height, standing volume, straightness of stem and health status. Populations from Poland (Spała, Miłomłyn, Rychtal), Germany (Betzhorn, Lampertheim), France (Haguenau) and Hungary (Pornóapáti) characterized by the best growth parameters. In contrast, pines from Northern (Russia, Sweden) and Southern (Turkey, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina) Europe were smaller and thinner and, as a result, with lower standing volume. The smallest differences of pine populations were found in tree height. The highest mean tree height (11.68 m) was reported for Rychtal (Poland) provenance, while the lowest (6.77 m) for Çatacik (Turkey). The overall mean tree height in the whole experiment was 9.83 m. Diameter at breast height (dbh) varied more than the tree height. The highest mean dbh (129.91 mm) was reported for Haguenau (France) provenance, while the lowest (72.85 mm) again for Çatacik (Turkey). The overall mean dbh for all provenances equaled 107.12 mm. The highest differences of pine populations were found in the standing volume. The highest standing volume (19.05 m³/ha) was obtained for Pornóapáti (Hungary) provenance, while the lowest (163.72 m³/ha) again for Çatacik (Turkey). In terms of silvicultural quality, the northern provenances were classified as the best ones because of high proportion of trees with straight stems. The largest share of tress with straight stems occurred in the population of Serebryanskoe from Russia (60.8%), while the smallest of Haguenau from France (6.9%). The populations from Southern Europe (Maočnica, Prusačka Rijeka and Çatacik) show poor adaptation to environmental conditions of central Poland.