Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2010 | 70 | 1 |

Tytuł artykułu

The relationship between pain sensitivity and conditioned fear response in rats

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



It might seem obvious that pain sensitivity would predict individual, inborn susceptibilities to aversive stimuli and the strength of fear-conditioned responses. Such relationships are based on the assumption that there is a close association between fear-evoked behavioral reactions and the responses to painful, aversive stimuli. However, this problem has not been systematically studied. To this end, we investigated the relationship between pain sensitivity in two pain tests (the ‘tail-flick’ and ‘flinch-jump’ tests) and a conditioned, fear-evoked, freezing response in rats. The results show that there was no correlation between: (1) the conditioned (associative) and the novelty-evoked (non-specific stress-related) fear response and (2) individual differences in pain threshold and fear responses. Furthermore, factor analysis did not group freezing in the conditioned fear test, individual footshock sensibility, or ‘tail-flick’ reaction to painful stimuli together. These results indicate that pain sensitivity and conditioned emotional responses to pain are not directly correlated.

Słowa kluczowe








Opis fizyczny



  • Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland


  • Akil H, Mayer DJ (1972) Antagonism of stimulation-pro­duced analgesia. Brain Res 94: 692-697.
  • Apkarian AV, Sosa Y, Krauss BR, Thomas PB, Frederickson BE, Levy RE, Harden RN, Chialvo DR (2004) Chronic pain patients are impaired on an emotional decision- making task. Pain 108: 129-136.
  • Apkarian AV (2008) Pain perception in relation to emotional learning. Curr Opin Neurobiol 18: 464-468.
  • Borta A, Schwarting RKW (2005) Inhibitory avoidance, pain reactivity, and plus-maze behavior in Wistar rats with high versus low rearing activity. Physiol Behav 84: 387-396.
  • Burns JW (2006) The role of attentional strategies in moder­ating links between acute pain induction and subsequent psychological stress: evidence for symptom-specific reac­tivity among patients with chronic pain versus healthy nonpatients. Emotion 6: 180-192. Cecchi M, Capriles N, Watson SJ. Akil H (2008) Differential responses to morphine-induced analgesia in the tail-flick test. Behav Brain Res 194: 146-151.
  • Choi S, Jung SY, Rhim H, Jeong SW, Lee SM, Nah SY (2000) Evidence that ginsenosides prevent the develop­ment of opioid tolerance at the central nervous system. Life Sci 67: 969-975.
  • D'Amour FE, Smith DL (1941) A method for determining loss of pain sensation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 72: 74-79.
  • Evans WO (1961) A new technique for the investigation of some analgesic drugs on a reflexive behavior in the rat. Psychopharmacol 2: 318-325.
  • Flor H, Knost B, Birbaumer N (2002) The role of operant conditioning in chronic pain: an experimental investiga­tion. Pain 95: 111-118.
  • Hebert MA, Ardid D, Henrie JA, Tamshiro K, Blanchard DC, Blanchard RJ (1999) Amygdala lesion produce anal­gesia in a novel, ethologically relevant acute pain test. Physiol Behav 67: 99-105.
  • Kasicki S, Jeleń P, Olszewski M, Sławińska U (2009) Electrical hippocampal activity during danger and safety signals in classical conditioning in the rat. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 69: 119-128.
  • Klucken T, Kagerer S, Schweckendiek J, Tabbert K, Vaitl D, Stark R (2009) Neural, electrodermal and behavioral response patterns in contingency aware and unaware sub­jects during a picture-picture conditioning paradigm. Neuroscience 158: 721-731.
  • Ledoux J (1998) The emotional brain. In: Human Emotions: A Reader (Jenkins JM, Oatley K, Stein NL, Eds). Blackwell Publishers Ltd, Oxford, UK, p. 98-111.
  • Lehner M, Taracha E, Skorzewska A, Wislowska A, Zienowicz M, Maciejak P, Szyndler J, Bidzinski A, Plaznik A (2004) Sensitivity to pain and c-Fos expression in brain structures in rats. Neurosci Lett 370: 74-79.
  • Lehner M, Taracha E, Skorzewska A, Maciejak P, Wislowska- Stanek A, Zienowicz M, Szyndler J, Bidzinski A, Plaznik A (2006) Behavioral, immunocytochemical and biochem­ical studies in rats differing in their sensitivity to pain. Behav Brain Res 171: 189-198.
  • Lehner M, Taracha E, Skorzewska A, Turzynska D, Sobolewska A, Maciejak P, Szyndler J, Hamed A, Bidzinski A, Wislowska-Stanek A, Plaznik A (2008a) Expression of c-Fos and CRF in the brains of rats differ­ing in the strength of a fear response. Behav Brain Res 188: 154-167.
  • Lehner M, Taracha E, Turzynska D, Sobolewska A, Hamed A, Kolomanska P, Skorzewska A, Maciejak P, Szyndler J, Bidzinski A, Plaznik A (2008b) The role of the dorsomedial part of the prefrontal cortex serotonin- ergic innervation in rat responses to the aversively conditioned context: behavioral, biochemical and immunocytochemical studies. Behav Brain Res 192: 203-215.
  • Lousberg R, Groenman NH, Schmidt AJ, Gielen AA (1996) Operant conditioning of the pain experience. Percept Mot Skills 83: 883-900.
  • Lovick TA (2008) Pro-nociceptive action of cholecystokinin in the periaqueductal grey: a role in neuropathic and anxiety-induced hyperalgesic states. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32: 852-862.
  • Maciejak P, Taracha E, Lehner M, Szyndler J, Bidzinski A, Skorzewska A, Wislowska A, Zienowicz M, Plaznik A (2003) Hippocampal mGluR1 and consolidation of con­textual fear conditioning. Brain Res Bull 6: 39-45.
  • Melzack R, Wall PD (1965) Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science 150: 971-979.
  • Miczek KA, Thompson ML, Shuster L (1982) Opioid-like analgesia in defeated mice. Science 215: 1520-1522.
  • Nakagawa T, Katsuya A, Tanimoto S, Yamamoto J, Yamauchi Y, Minami M, Satoh M (2003) Differenetial patterns of c-fos mRNA expression in the amygdaloid nuclei induced by chemical somatic and visceral noxious stimuli in rats. Neurosci Lett 344: 197-200.
  • Petrovic P, Ingvar M, Stone-Elander S, Petersson KM, Hansson P (1999) A PET activation study of dynamic mechanical allodynia in patients with mononeuropathy. Pain 83: 459-470.
  • Rainville P, Duncan GH, Price DD, Carrier B, Bushnell MC (1997) Pain affect encoded in human anterior cingulate but not somatosensory cortex. Science 277: 968-971.
  • Sacchetti B, Lorenzini CE, Baldi E, Tassoni G, Bucherelli C (1999) Auditory thalamus, dorsal hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, and perirhinal cortex role in the consolidation of conditioned freezing to context and to acoustic conditioned stimulus in the rat. J Neurosci 19: 9570-9578.
  • Schneider CH, Palomba D, Flor H (2004) Pavlovian condi­tioning of muscular responses in chronic pain patients: central and peripheral correlates. Pain 112: 239-247.
  • Smith WJ, Stewart J, Pfaus JG (1997) Tail pinch induces fos immunoreactivity within several regions of the male rat brain: effect of age. Physiol Behav 61: 717-723.
  • Szyndler J, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T, Skorzewska A, Maciejak P, Walkowiak J, Lechowicz W, Turzynska D, Bidzinski A, Plaznik A (2005) Behavioral, biochemical and histologi- cal studies in a model of pilocarpine sponatneous recur­rent seizures. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 81: 15-23.
  • Takahashi H (2004) Automated measurement of freezing time to contextual and auditory cues in fear conditioning as a simple screening method to assess learning and memory abilities in rats. J Toxicol Sci 29: 53-61.
  • Tanimoto S, Nakagagawa T, Yamauchi Y, Minami M, Satoh M (2003) Differential contributions of the basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala in the negative affective component of chemical somatic and visceral pains in rats. Eur J Neurosci 18: 2343-2350.
  • Tseng LF, Collins KA (1995) Pretreatment with pertussis toxin blocks morphine- but not y#-endorphin-induced anti- nociception in the mouse. Eur J Pharmacol 294: 345­348.
  • Valentinuzzi VS, Kolker DE, Vitaterna MH, Shimomura K, Whiteley A, Low-Zeddies S, Turek FW, Ferrari EA, Paylor R, Takahashi JS (1998) Automated measurement of mouse freezing behavior and its use for quantitative trait locus analysis of contextual fear conditioning in (BALB/cJ x C57BL/6J) F2 mice. Learn Mem 5: 391­403.
  • Werka T (1980) Acquisition of the escape reflex in cats after the nucleus centralis of the amygdala lesions. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 40: 433-449.
  • Witting N, Kupers RC, Svensson P, Jensen TS (2006) A PET activation study of brush-evoked allodynia in patients with nerve injury pain. Pain 120: 145-154.
  • Wunsch A, Philippot P, Plaghki L (2003) Affective associa­tive learning modifies the sensory perception of nocicep­tive stimuli without participant's awareness. Pain 102: 27-38.
  • Xu K, Ernst M, Goldman D (2006) Imaging genomics applied to anxiety, stress response, and resiliency. Neuroinformatics 4: 51-64.
  • Zhuo M (2006) Molecular mechanisms of pain in the ante­rior cingulated cortex. J Neurosci 84: 927-933.


Rekord w opracowaniu

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.