Culturable fungi in brown bear cave dens
Treść / Zawartość
The analyses reported in the present paper aimed at determining the species composition and spore concentrations of airborne fungi in bear dens. Aeromycological analyses inside the dens were performed with the impact method using an Air Ideal 3P apparatus. Five bear dens were included in the survey – all located within Tatra National Park in southern Poland. Four dens had been used by females with one young or by solitary individuals, and another one had not been used for several years. The aeromycological analysis of the dens revealed the incidence of 13 species of fungi. Inside the dens in which the females with young had hibernated, the majority of spores represented the genus Penicillium. In the remaining dens the highest concentrations of spores were produced by the species P. glaucoalbidum. Furthermore, the airborne spores of Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, and Trichoderma spp. were found in the dens surveyed. In the dens used by females with young, the concentrations of CFU/m³ were lower, but the number of species of fungi was higher compared to the ones in which no young individuals hibernated. In the latter dens the values of CFU/m³ reached levels potentially dangerous to human health.
- Plant Pathology and Mycology Division, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty Of Life Sciences and Technology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
- Department of Molecular Phytopathology, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Kordeckiego 20, 85-225 Bydgoszcz, Poland
- Tatra National Park, Kuznice 1, 34-500 Zakopane, Poland
- 1. MENTESE S., ARISOY M., RAD A.Y., GÜLLÜ G. Bacteria and fungi levels in various indoor and outdoor environments in Ankara, Turkey. Clean–Soil, Air, Water 37, 487, 2009.
- 2. GÓRNY R.L., CYPROWSKI M., ŁAWNICZEK-WAŁCZYK A., GOŁOFIT-SZYMCZAK M., ZAPÓR L. Biohazards in the indoor environment – a role for threshold limit values in exposure assessment. Management of indoor air quality. London: Taylor and Francis Group, 1, 2011.
- 3. PUSZ W., PLĄSKOWSKA E., WEBER R., KITA W. Assessment of the abundance of airborne fungi in cattle barn of dairy farm. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 24, 241, 2015.
- 4. BRYDEN W.L. Mycotoxin contamination of the feed supply chain: Implications for animal productivity and feed security. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 173, 134, 2012.
- 5. PUSZ W., OGÓREK R. The potential harmful effect of fungi associated with tobacco material during storage on warehouse workers. Mikologia Lekarska, 19, 37, 2012.
- 6. KOKUREWICZ T., OGÓREK R., PUSZ W., MATKOWSKI K. Bats Increase the Number of Cultivable Airborne Fungi in the “Nietoperek” Bat Reserve in Western Poland. Microbial Ecology 72, 36, 2016.
- 7. GALLO M., LANFRANCHI P. POGLAYEN S. Seasonal 4-year investigation into the role of the alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) as a carrier of zoophilic dermatophytes. Medical Mycology 43, 373, 2005.
- 8. LINNELL J.D., SWENSON J.E., ANDERSEN R., BARNES B. How vulnerable are denning bears to disturbance? Wildlife Society Bulletin 28, 400, 2000.
- 9. HAROLDSON M.A., TERNENT M.A., GUNTHER K.A., SCHWARTZ C.C. Grizzly bear denning chronology and movements in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Ursus 13, 29, 2002.
- 10. FRIEBE A., SWENSON J.E., SANDEGREN F. Denning chronology of female brown bears in central Sweden. Ursus 12, 37, 2001.
- 11. ELFSTRÖM, M., SWENSON J. E. Effects of sex and age on den site use by Scandinavian brown bears. Ursus 20, 85, 2009.
- 12. NIELSEN S.E., MCDERMID G., STENHOUSE G.B., BOYCE M. S. Dynamic wildlife habitat models: seasonal foods and mortality risk predict occupancy-abundance and habitat selection in grizzly bears. Biological Conservation 143, 1623, 2010.
- 13. ZIĘBA F., ZWIJACZ-KOZICA T. On, czyli prawie wszystko o tatrzańskim niedźwiedziu. Tatrzański Park Narodowy, Zakopane, Polska. 2010 [In Polish].
- 14. MYSTERUD I. Characteristics of summer beds of European brown bears in Norway. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 5, 208, 1983.
- 15. FALARZ M. Seasonal stability of snow cover in Poland in relation to the atmospheric circulation. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 111, 21, 2013.
- 16. INNIS M.A., GELFAN D.H., SNINSKY J.J., WHITE T.J. PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic press. 2012.
- 17. VANDERWOLF K.J., MALLOCH D., MCALPINE D.F., FORBES G.J. A world review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds in caves. International Journal of Speleology 42, 77, 2013.
- 18. PUSZ W., OGÓREK R., UKLAŃSKA-PUSZ C., ZAGOŻDŻON P. Speleomycological research in underground Osówka complex in Sowie Mountains (Lower Silesia, Poland). International Journal of Speleology 43, 27, 2014.
- 19. PUSZ W., KITA W., WEBER R. Microhabitat influences the occurrence of airborne fungi in a copper mine in Poland. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 76, 14, 2014.
- 20. KOUKOL O., BEŇOVÁ B., VOSMANSKÁ M., FRANTÍK T., VOSÁTKA M. KOVÁŘOVÁ M. 2008. Decomposition of spruce litter needles of different quality by Setulipes androsaceus and Thysanophora penicillioides. Plant and Soil 311, 151, 2008.
- 21. KUTTIN E.S., MÜLLER J. The fungal flora of zoo animals’ ears. Mycoses 37, 59, 1994.
- 22. NIELSEN K.F., JENS C.F. Mycotoxins on building materials. Fundamentals of mold growth in indoor environments and strategies for healthy living. Wageningen Academic Publishers, 245, 2011.
- 23. CABRAL J.P. Can we use indoor fungi as bioindicators of indoor air quality? Historical perspectives and open questions. Sci of Total Environ 408, 4285, 2012.
- 24. PŁAWIŃSKA-CZARNAK J., ZARZYŃSKA J. Mycotoxins in food products of animal origin. Mikologia Lekarska, 17, 128, 2010.
- 25. SUANTHIE Y., COUSIN M.A., WOLOSHUK C.P. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection and quantification of mycotoxigenic Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Journal of Stored Products Research, 45, 139, 2009.
- 26. POLISH NORM PN-89/Z-04111/03. Air purity protection. Microbiological analyses. Assessment of the concentration of microscopic fungi in the atmospheric air (ambient concentration) using aspiration and sedimentation method. Warszawa, Polish Committee for Standarization of Units and Quality 1989.
- 27. JURADO V., LAIZ L., RODRIGUEZ-NAVA V., BOIRON P., HERMOSIN B., SANCHEZ-MORAL S., SAIZ-JIMENEZ C. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves. International Journal of Speleology 39, 15, 2010.
- 28. OUT B., BOYLE S., CHEEPTHAM N. Identification of fungi from soil in the Nakimu caves of Glacier National Park. Microbiology & Immunology 2, 26, 2016.
- 29. SALEEM M., LAMB B.C., NEVO E. Inherited differences in crossing over and gene conversion frequencies between wild strains of Sordaria fimicola from “Evolution Canyon”. Genetics 159, 1573, 2001.
- 30. KHADEMPOUR L., LEMAY V., JACK D., BOHLMANN J., BREUIL C. 2012. The relative abundance of mountain pine beetle fungal associates through the beetle life cycle in pine trees. Microbial Ecology 64, 909, 2012.
- 31. HUBÁLEK Z., RUDOLF I. Vertebrates as Hosts and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Microbial Agents. In: Microbial Zoonoses and Sapronoses. Springer Netherlands, 83, 2010.
- 32. BULL E.J., AKENSON J.J., HENJUM M.G. Characteristics of Black Bear Dens in Trees and Logs in Northeastern Oregon. Northwestern Naturalist 81, 148, 2000.
- 33. RIZZO D.M. Exotic Species and Fungi: Interactions with Fungal, Plant, and Animal Communities. Mycology Series 23, 857, 2005.