Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2017 | 13 |

Tytuł artykułu

Infrared studies and mineral element analysis of the leaf of Vernonia amygdalina


Treść / Zawartość

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



Used in traditional medicine, infrared characterization of column eluates and elemental analysis of V. amygdalina was carried out to establish preliminary views of the chemical and mineral element composition of the leaf of this plant. In the five pure eluates obtained, we found that they contained saturated aliphatic esters, nitro-groups conjugated with benzene ring, secondary amines/nitrogen heterocycles, 1,3-disubstituted benzene and oxazine/oxazoline fragments, respectively. Moreover, we established that potassium, magnesium and sodium were the major minerals in the leaf, while copper, zinc, iron, nickel, manganese and chromium occurred in trace amounts. Research attention should therefore be focused on this plant for the full exploration and exploitation of its obvious antibiotic and mineral values.

Słowa kluczowe






Opis fizyczny



  • Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Imo State, Owerri, Nigeria
  • Department of Chemistry, Imo State University, P.M.B. 2000, Imo State, Owerri, Nigeria


  • [1] Akah P.A. and Ekekwe R.K., Ethnopharmacology of some of the asteraceae family used in the Nigerian traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 66 (1995) 352-355
  • [2] Akah P.A. and Okafor C.I., Hyperglycemic effect of Vernonia amygdalina Del. on experimental rabbit. Plant Medical Research 1 (1992) 6-10
  • [3] Akinpelu D.A., Antimicrobial activity of Vernonia amygdalina leaves. Fitoterapia 70 (1999) 232-234
  • [4] Anantharaj M., Venkatesalu V., Chandrasekaran M., and Sivasankari S., Screening of fatty acid methyl ester of marine algae for antibacterial activity. Seaweed Res. Utiln. 26 (2004) 87-92
  • [5] Chandrasekaran M., Kannathasan K. and Venkatesalu V., Antimicrobial Activity of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters of Some Members of Chenopodiaceae. Z. Naturforsch. 63c (2008) 331-336
  • [6] Choudhury M.D., Paul S.B., Choudhury S.C., Choudhury P.P., Isolation, Characterization and Bio-activity Screening of Compound from Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. Assam University Journal of Science & Technology: Biological Sciences, 4(1) (2009) 29-34
  • [7] Ebong P.E., Atangwho I.J., Eyong E.U., Egbung G.E., The antidiabetic efficacy of combined extracts from two continental plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) (Neem) and Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) (African bitter leaf). Ame. J. Biochem. And Biotechnol. 4(3) (2008) 239-244
  • [8] Eyong E.U., Agiang M.A., Atangwho I.J., Iwara I.A., Odey M.O. and Ebong P.E., Phytochemicals and micronutrients composition of root and stem bark extracts of Vernonia amygdalina. Journal of Medicine and Medical Science 2(6) (2011) 900-903
  • [9] Feder H., Chloramphenicol: what we have learnt in the last decade. Southern Medical Journal 79(9) (1986) 1129-1134
  • [10] Gordey E.E., Yadav P.N., Merrin M.P., Davies J., Ward S.A., Woodman G.M.J., Sadowy A.L., Smith T.G. and Gossage R.A., Synthesis and biological activities of 4-N-(anilinyl-n-[oxazolyl])-7- chloroquinolines (n = 30 or 40) against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro models. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 21 (2011) 4512-4515
  • [11] Igile G.O., Oleszek W., Burda S., Jurzysta M., Nutritional assessment of Vernonia amygdalina leaves in growing mice. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry 43 (1995) 2162-2166
  • [12] Ijeh I.I., Ejike C.C., Current perspectives on the medicinal potentials of Vernonia amygdalina Del. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5(7) (2011) 1051-1061
  • [13] Kabara J.J., Swieczkowski D.M., Conley A.J. and Jruant J.P., Fatty acids and derivatives as antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2 (1972) 23-28
  • [14] Karla Y.P., Handbook of Reference methods for plant Analysis. CRC Press, Tailor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, US, (1998) 57-59
  • [15] Kumar A.R., Kokate C.R., Rao T.V.P., Rambhau D. and Rao Y.M., Studies on Lawsonia inermis: Lawsone and its Oxazine derivatives as potential anticoagulant agents. J. Res. Edu. Indian Med. 1 (1985) 7-8
  • [16] Maruyama T., Kozai S. , Yamasaki T., Witvrouw M. , Pannecouque C. , Balzarini J., Snoeck R., Andrei G. and De Clercq E., Synthesis and antiviral activity of 1,3-disubstituted uracils against HIV-1 and HCMV. Antiviral Chemistry and Chemoterapy 14 (2003) 271-279
  • [17] Mistry B.D., A handbook of spectroscopic data chemistry. Oxford Book Company Jaipur India, (2009) 27-63
  • [18] Moraski G.C., Chang M., Villegas-Estrada A., Franzblau S.G., Mo¨llmann U. and Miller M.J., Structure-activity relationship of new anti-tuberculosis agents derived from oxazoline and oxazole benzyl esters. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 45 (2010) 1703-1716.
  • [19] Moundipa F.P., Kamini G., Melanie F., Bilong F.C., Bruchhaus I., In vito amoebic activity of some medicinal plants of the Bamun region (Cameroon). Africa Journal of Cameroon 62 (2000) 113-121
  • [20] Nwobegu J.S. and Egbuna P.A.C., Antihepatotoxicity of crude extract of Vernonia amygdalina on rat’s liver. Research work submitted to the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (2002) 3-15
  • [21] Oboh F.O.J., Masodje H.I., Nutritional and antimicrobial properties of Vernonia amygdalina leaves. International Journal of Biomedical and Health Sciences 5(2) (2009) 51-56.
  • [22] Offor C.E., Comparative chemical analyses of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta indica leaves. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 9(5) Ver. II, (2014) 73-77
  • [23] Oguwike F.N, Offor C.C, Onubeze D.P.M, Nwadioha A.N., Evaluation of activities of bitterleaf (Vernonia Amygdalina) extract on haemostatic and biochemical profile of induced male diabetic albino rats. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 11(2) (2013) 60-64
  • [24] Oshim I.O., Desmond C.O., Nwobu R.A., Ezugwu U.M., Urama E.U., Kinetics of minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) on microorganisms isolated from wound infections. International Journal of Surgical Research 5(1) (2016) 8-14
  • [25] Patel D.K., Kumar R., Laloo D., Hemalatha S., Diabetes mellitus: An overview on its pharmacological aspects and reported medicinal plants having antidiabetic activity. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2(5) (2012) 411-420
  • [26] Plemenkov V.V., Introduction to chemistry of natural compounds. Kazan (2001).
  • [27] Reza V.R.M., Abbas H., Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of harman alkaloids. J Pharmacol Toxicol. 2(7) (2007) 677-680
  • [28] Soetan K.O., Olaiya C.O. and Oyewole O.E., The importance of mineral elements for humans, domestic animals and plants: A review. African Journal of Food Science 4(5) (2010) 200-222
  • [29] Waschinski C.J. and Tiller J.C., Poly(oxazoline)s with telechelic antimicrobial Functions. Biomacromolecules 6 (2005) 235-243
  • [30] Yu X., Liu Y., Li Y. and Wang Q., Design, Synthesis, and Acaricidal/Insecticidal Activities of Oxazoline Derivatives Containing a Sulfur Ether Moiety. J. Agric. Food Chem. 63(44) (2015) 9690-9695

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.