The purpose of the paper was to determine two things: the influence of type and amount of reinforcement on shear strength of soil and the relation between the efficiency of reinforcement and soil moisture content. Shear strength was determined in a direct shear apparatus in a box with a square section of 80x80 mm. The range of normal stress was from 25 to 150 kPa and the shear velocity was 1.0 mm×min⁻¹. The tests were carried out on medium sand and clayey coarse silt at two moisture contents and with two types of reinforcement - polyolefine fibres and 40x3 mm foil stripes. The addition of reinforcement was 0.5 and 1.0% in relation to the dry mass of soil. Test results indicated that using polyolefine fibres as dispersed reinforcement in a sandy soil increased its shear strength. Whereas the influence of using foil stripes on shear strength was little. However, using both types of reinforcement in a cohesive soil increased its shear strength and this influence was particularly clear at higher moisture content.