The effects of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) adults were evaluated under broadcast spray and toxic bait systems in the laboratory. In general, when C. capitata and A. fraterculus were sprayed with insecticides, the time required for killing them was inversely proportional to the neonicotinoid concentrations. By cover spray, females and males of A. fraterculus were more susceptible to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam than C. capitata, presenting significantly lower LT50. In the case of imidacloprid bait, no differences at LT50 were detected between females or males of both fruit flies or between sexes of respective fruit fly species. In general, C. capitata and A. fraterculus adults died in all the toxic baits up to 7 days after application on citrus leaves in the field. The data emphasize the viability of the use of neonicotinoids for the control of fruit flies.